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“Another Trip Around the Sun”– Meaning and Examples of This Common English Phrase

July 14, 2022 By Anthony R. Garcia

Another trip around the sun

The phrase, another trip around the sun , refers to the time period of one year—the length of time it takes for the Earth to travel around our sun. The word trip  means journey , which creates the idea that each of us makes a journey around the sun, each year. Therefore, the phrase is often used on a person’s birthday when a person has made “one more” or “another” trip around the sun:

Let us raise a toast to another trip around the sun !

The phrase was recently made popular as the title of a Jimmy Buffet song (2004) about his birthday, although it is unlikely he was the first person to use it this way. The phrase might also be used on anniversaries, New Year’s Eve, or other occasions celebrating “one more year” of life on planet Earth.

The Story of Earth's Orbit Around the Sun

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  • M.A., Geography, California State University - Northridge
  • B.A., Geography, University of California - Davis

Earth's motion around the Sun was a mystery for many centuries as very early sky watchers attempted to understand what was actually moving: the Sun across the sky or Earth around the Sun. The Sun-centered solar system idea was deduced thousands of years ago by the Greek philosopher Aristarchus of Samos. It wasn't proved until Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus proposed his Sun-centered theories in the 1500s, and showed how planets could orbit the Sun.

Earth orbits the Sun in a slightly flattened circle called an "ellipse." In geometry, the ellipse is a curve that loops around two points called "foci." The distance from the center to the longest ends of the ellipse is called the "semi-major axis," while the distance to the flattened "sides" of the ellipse is called the "semi-minor axis." The Sun is at one focus of each planet's ellipse, which means that the distance between the Sun and each planet varies throughout the year. 

Earth's Orbital Characteristics

When Earth is closest to the Sun in its orbit, it is at "perihelion." That distance is 147,166,462 kilometers, and Earth gets there each January 3. Then, on July 4 of each year, Earth is as far from the Sun as it ever gets, at a distance of 152,171,522 kilometers. That point is called "aphelion." Every world (including comets and asteroids) in the solar system that primarily orbits the Sun has a perihelion point and an aphelion.

Notice that for Earth, the closest point is during northern hemisphere winter, while the most distant point is northern hemisphere summer. Although there's a small increase in solar heating that our planet gets during its orbit, it doesn't necessarily correlate with the perihelion and aphelion. The reasons for the seasons are more due to our planet's orbital tilt throughout the year. In short, each part of the planet tilted toward the Sun during the yearly orbit will get heated more during that time. As it tilts away, the heating amount is less. That helps contribute to the change of seasons more than Earth's place in its orbit.

Useful Aspects of Earth's Orbit for Astronomers

Earth's orbit around the Sun is a benchmark for distance. Astronomers take the average distance between Earth and the Sun (149,597,691 kilometers) and use it as a standard distance called the "astronomical unit" (or AU for short). They then use this as shorthand for larger distances in the solar system. For example, Mars is 1.524 astronomical units. That means it's just over one-and-a-half times the distance between Earth and the Sun. Jupiter is 5.2 AU, while Pluto is a whopping 39.,5 AU. 

The Moon's Orbit

The Moon's orbit is also elliptical. It moves around Earth once every 27 days, and due to tidal locking, always shows the same face to us here on Earth. The Moon doesn't actually orbit Earth; they actually orbit a common center of gravity called a barycenter. The complexity of the Earth-Moon orbit, and their orbit around the Sun results in the apparent changing shape of the Moon as seen from Earth. These changes, called phases of the Moon , go through a cycle every 30 days.

Interestingly, the Moon is slowly moving away from Earth. Eventually, it will be so far away that such events as total solar eclipses will no longer occur. The Moon will still occult the Sun, but it won't appear to block the entire Sun as it does now during a total solar eclipse.

Other Planets' Orbits

The other worlds of the solar system that orbit the Sun have different length years due to their distances. Mercury, for example, has an orbit just 88 Earth-days long. Venus's is 225 Earth-days, while Mars's is 687 Earth days. Jupiter takes 11.86 Earth years to orbit the Sun, while Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto take 28.45, 84, 164.8, and 248 years, respectively. These lengthy orbits reflect one of Johannes Kepler's laws of planetary orbits , which says that the period of time it takes to orbit the Sun is proportional to its distance (its semi-major axis). The other laws he devised describe the shape of the orbit and the time each planet takes to traverse each part of its path around the Sun.

Edited and expanded by Carolyn Collins Petersen.

  • Milankovitch Cycles: How the Earth and Sun Interact
  • Explore Earth - Our Home Planet
  • Journey Through the Solar System: Planet Earth
  • The Reasons for the Seasons
  • Explore Johannes Kepler's Laws of Motion
  • Journey Through the Solar System: Planet Mercury
  • Trojan Asteroids: What Are They?
  • What are Rotation and Revolution?
  • The New Solar System: Exploration Continues
  • Planet Earth: Facts You Need to Know
  • Winter Solstice
  • Journey Through the Solar System: Planet Uranus
  • When Is the Summer Solstice?
  • Journey Through the Solar System: Dwarf Planet Pluto
  • The Pioneer Missions: Explorations of the Solar System
  • Journey Through the Solar System: Planet Neptune
  • 2.1 The Sky Above
  • Introduction
  • 1.1 The Nature of Astronomy
  • 1.2 The Nature of Science
  • 1.3 The Laws of Nature
  • 1.4 Numbers in Astronomy
  • 1.5 Consequences of Light Travel Time
  • 1.6 A Tour of the Universe
  • 1.7 The Universe on the Large Scale
  • 1.8 The Universe of the Very Small
  • 1.9 A Conclusion and a Beginning
  • For Further Exploration
  • Thinking Ahead
  • 2.2 Ancient Astronomy
  • 2.3 Astrology and Astronomy
  • 2.4 The Birth of Modern Astronomy
  • Collaborative Group Activities
  • Review Questions
  • Thought Questions
  • Figuring for Yourself
  • 3.1 The Laws of Planetary Motion
  • 3.2 Newton’s Great Synthesis
  • 3.3 Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation
  • 3.4 Orbits in the Solar System
  • 3.5 Motions of Satellites and Spacecraft
  • 3.6 Gravity with More Than Two Bodies
  • 4.1 Earth and Sky
  • 4.2 The Seasons
  • 4.3 Keeping Time
  • 4.4 The Calendar
  • 4.5 Phases and Motions of the Moon
  • 4.6 Ocean Tides and the Moon
  • 4.7 Eclipses of the Sun and Moon
  • 5.1 The Behavior of Light
  • 5.2 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
  • 5.3 Spectroscopy in Astronomy
  • 5.4 The Structure of the Atom
  • 5.5 Formation of Spectral Lines
  • 5.6 The Doppler Effect
  • 6.1 Telescopes
  • 6.2 Telescopes Today
  • 6.3 Visible-Light Detectors and Instruments
  • 6.4 Radio Telescopes
  • 6.5 Observations outside Earth’s Atmosphere
  • 6.6 The Future of Large Telescopes
  • 7.1 Overview of Our Planetary System
  • 7.2 Composition and Structure of Planets
  • 7.3 Dating Planetary Surfaces
  • 7.4 Origin of the Solar System
  • 8.1 The Global Perspective
  • 8.2 Earth’s Crust
  • 8.3 Earth’s Atmosphere
  • 8.4 Life, Chemical Evolution, and Climate Change
  • 8.5 Cosmic Influences on the Evolution of Earth
  • 9.1 General Properties of the Moon
  • 9.2 The Lunar Surface
  • 9.3 Impact Craters
  • 9.4 The Origin of the Moon
  • 9.5 Mercury
  • 10.1 The Nearest Planets: An Overview
  • 10.2 The Geology of Venus
  • 10.3 The Massive Atmosphere of Venus
  • 10.4 The Geology of Mars
  • 10.5 Water and Life on Mars
  • 10.6 Divergent Planetary Evolution
  • 11.1 Exploring the Outer Planets
  • 11.2 The Giant Planets
  • 11.3 Atmospheres of the Giant Planets
  • 12.1 Ring and Moon Systems Introduced
  • 12.2 The Galilean Moons of Jupiter
  • 12.3 Titan and Triton
  • 12.4 Pluto and Charon
  • 12.5 Planetary Rings (and Enceladus)
  • 13.1 Asteroids
  • 13.2 Asteroids and Planetary Defense
  • 13.3 The “Long-Haired” Comets
  • 13.4 The Origin and Fate of Comets and Related Objects
  • 14.1 Meteors
  • 14.2 Meteorites: Stones from Heaven
  • 14.3 Formation of the Solar System
  • 14.4 Comparison with Other Planetary Systems
  • 14.5 Planetary Evolution
  • 15.1 The Structure and Composition of the Sun
  • 15.2 The Solar Cycle
  • 15.3 Solar Activity above the Photosphere
  • 15.4 Space Weather
  • 16.1 Sources of Sunshine: Thermal and Gravitational Energy
  • 16.2 Mass, Energy, and the Theory of Relativity
  • 16.3 The Solar Interior: Theory
  • 16.4 The Solar Interior: Observations
  • 17.1 The Brightness of Stars
  • 17.2 Colors of Stars
  • 17.3 The Spectra of Stars (and Brown Dwarfs)
  • 17.4 Using Spectra to Measure Stellar Radius, Composition, and Motion
  • 18.1 A Stellar Census
  • 18.2 Measuring Stellar Masses
  • 18.3 Diameters of Stars
  • 18.4 The H–R Diagram
  • 19.1 Fundamental Units of Distance
  • 19.2 Surveying the Stars
  • 19.3 Variable Stars: One Key to Cosmic Distances
  • 19.4 The H–R Diagram and Cosmic Distances
  • 20.1 The Interstellar Medium
  • 20.2 Interstellar Gas
  • 20.3 Cosmic Dust
  • 20.4 Cosmic Rays
  • 20.5 The Life Cycle of Cosmic Material
  • 20.6 Interstellar Matter around the Sun
  • 21.1 Star Formation
  • 21.2 The H–R Diagram and the Study of Stellar Evolution
  • 21.3 Evidence That Planets Form around Other Stars
  • 21.4 Planets beyond the Solar System: Search and Discovery
  • 21.5 Exoplanets Everywhere: What We Are Learning
  • 21.6 New Perspectives on Planet Formation
  • 22.1 Evolution from the Main Sequence to Red Giants
  • 22.2 Star Clusters
  • 22.3 Checking Out the Theory
  • 22.4 Further Evolution of Stars
  • 22.5 The Evolution of More Massive Stars
  • 23.1 The Death of Low-Mass Stars
  • 23.2 Evolution of Massive Stars: An Explosive Finish
  • 23.3 Supernova Observations
  • 23.4 Pulsars and the Discovery of Neutron Stars
  • 23.5 The Evolution of Binary Star Systems
  • 23.6 The Mystery of the Gamma-Ray Bursts
  • 24.1 Introducing General Relativity
  • 24.2 Spacetime and Gravity
  • 24.3 Tests of General Relativity
  • 24.4 Time in General Relativity
  • 24.5 Black Holes
  • 24.6 Evidence for Black Holes
  • 24.7 Gravitational Wave Astronomy
  • 25.1 The Architecture of the Galaxy
  • 25.2 Spiral Structure
  • 25.3 The Mass of the Galaxy
  • 25.4 The Center of the Galaxy
  • 25.5 Stellar Populations in the Galaxy
  • 25.6 The Formation of the Galaxy
  • 26.1 The Discovery of Galaxies
  • 26.2 Types of Galaxies
  • 26.3 Properties of Galaxies
  • 26.4 The Extragalactic Distance Scale
  • 26.5 The Expanding Universe
  • 27.1 Quasars
  • 27.2 Supermassive Black Holes: What Quasars Really Are
  • 27.3 Quasars as Probes of Evolution in the Universe
  • 28.1 Observations of Distant Galaxies
  • 28.2 Galaxy Mergers and Active Galactic Nuclei
  • 28.3 The Distribution of Galaxies in Space
  • 28.4 The Challenge of Dark Matter
  • 28.5 The Formation and Evolution of Galaxies and Structure in the Universe
  • 29.1 The Age of the Universe
  • 29.2 A Model of the Universe
  • 29.3 The Beginning of the Universe
  • 29.4 The Cosmic Microwave Background
  • 29.5 What Is the Universe Really Made Of?
  • 29.6 The Inflationary Universe
  • 29.7 The Anthropic Principle
  • 30.1 The Cosmic Context for Life
  • 30.2 Astrobiology
  • 30.3 Searching for Life beyond Earth
  • 30.4 The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence
  • A | How to Study for an Introductory Astronomy Class
  • B | Astronomy Websites, Images, and Apps
  • C | Scientific Notation
  • D | Units Used in Science
  • E | Some Useful Constants for Astronomy
  • F | Physical and Orbital Data for the Planets
  • G | Selected Moons of the Planets
  • H | Future Total Eclipses
  • I | The Nearest Stars, Brown Dwarfs, and White Dwarfs
  • J | The Brightest Twenty Stars
  • K | The Chemical Elements
  • L | The Constellations
  • M | Star Chart and Sky Event Resources

Learning Objectives

By the end of this section, you will be able to:

  • Define the main features of the celestial sphere
  • Explain the system astronomers use to describe the sky
  • Describe how motions of the stars appear to us on Earth
  • Describe how motions of the Sun, Moon, and planets appear to us on Earth
  • Understand the modern meaning of the term constellation

Our senses suggest to us that Earth is the center of the universe—the hub around which the heavens turn. This geocentric (Earth-centered) view was what almost everyone believed until the European Renaissance. After all, it is simple, logical, and seemingly self-evident. Furthermore, the geocentric perspective reinforced those philosophical and religious systems that taught the unique role of human beings as the central focus of the cosmos. However, the geocentric view happens to be wrong. One of the great themes of our intellectual history is the overthrow of the geocentric perspective. Let us, therefore, take a look at the steps by which we reevaluated the place of our world in the cosmic order.

The Celestial Sphere

If you go on a camping trip or live far from city lights, your view of the sky on a clear night is pretty much identical to that seen by people all over the world before the invention of the telescope. Gazing up, you get the impression that the sky is a great hollow dome with you at the center ( Figure 2.2 ), and all the stars are an equal distance from you on the surface of the dome. The top of that dome, the point directly above your head, is called the zenith , and where the dome meets Earth is called the horizon . From the sea or a flat prairie, it is easy to see the horizon as a circle around you, but from most places where people live today, the horizon is at least partially hidden by mountains, trees, buildings, or smog.

If you lie back in an open field and observe the night sky for hours, as ancient shepherds and travelers regularly did, you will see stars rising on the eastern horizon (just as the Sun and Moon do), moving across the dome of the sky in the course of the night, and setting on the western horizon. Watching the sky turn like this night after night, you might eventually get the idea that the dome of the sky is really part of a great sphere that is turning around you, bringing different stars into view as it turns. The early Greeks regarded the sky as just such a celestial sphere ( Figure 2.3 ). Some thought of it as an actual sphere of transparent crystalline material, with the stars embedded in it like tiny jewels.

Today, we know that it is not the celestial sphere that turns as night and day proceed, but rather the planet on which we live. We can put an imaginary stick through Earth’s North and South Poles, representing our planet’s axis. It is because Earth turns on this axis every 24 hours that we see the Sun, Moon, and stars rise and set with clockwork regularity. Today, we know that these celestial objects are not really on a dome, but at greatly varying distances from us in space. Nevertheless, it is sometimes still convenient to talk about the celestial dome or sphere to help us keep track of objects in the sky. There is even a special theater, called a planetarium , in which we project a simulation of the stars and planets onto a white dome.

As the celestial sphere rotates, the objects on it maintain their positions with respect to one another. A grouping of stars such as the Big Dipper has the same shape during the course of the night, although it turns with the sky. During a single night, even objects we know to have significant motions of their own, such as the nearby planets, seem fixed relative to the stars. Only meteors—brief “shooting stars” that flash into view for just a few seconds—move appreciably with respect to other objects on the celestial sphere. (This is because they are not stars at all. Rather, they are small pieces of cosmic dust, burning up as they hit Earth’s atmosphere.) We can use the fact that the entire celestial sphere seems to turn together to help us set up systems for keeping track of what things are visible in the sky and where they happen to be at a given time.

Celestial Poles and Celestial Equator

To help orient us in the turning sky, astronomers use a system that extends Earth’s axis points into the sky. Imagine a line going through Earth, connecting the North and South Poles. This is Earth’s axis, and Earth rotates about this line. If we extend this imaginary line outward from Earth, the points where this line intersects the celestial sphere are called the north celestial pole and the south celestial pole . As Earth rotates about its axis, the sky appears to turn in the opposite direction around those celestial poles ( Figure 2.4 ). We also (in our imagination) throw Earth’s equator onto the sky and call this the celestial equator . It lies halfway between the celestial poles, just as Earth’s equator lies halfway between our planet’s poles.

Now let’s imagine how riding on different parts of our spinning Earth affects our view of the sky. The apparent motion of the celestial sphere depends on your latitude (position north or south of the equator). First of all, notice that Earth’s axis is pointing at the celestial poles, so these two points in the sky do not appear to turn.

If you stood at the North Pole of Earth, for example, you would see the north celestial pole overhead, at your zenith ( Figure 2.5 ). The celestial equator, 90° from the celestial poles, would lie along your horizon. As you watched the stars during the course of the night, they would all circle around the celestial pole, with none rising or setting. Only that half of the sky north of the celestial equator is ever visible to an observer at the North Pole. Similarly, an observer at the South Pole would see only the southern half of the sky.

If you were at Earth’s equator, on the other hand, you see the celestial equator (which, after all, is just an “extension” of Earth’s equator) pass overhead through your zenith. The celestial poles, being 90° from the celestial equator, must then be at the north and south points on your horizon. As the sky turns, all stars rise and set; they move straight up from the east side of the horizon and set straight down on the west side. During a 24-hour period, all stars are above the horizon exactly half the time. (Of course, during some of those hours, the Sun is too bright for us to see them.)

What would an observer in the latitudes of the United States or Europe see? Remember, we are neither at Earth’s pole nor at the equator, but in between them. For those in the continental United States and Europe, the north celestial pole is neither overhead nor on the horizon, but in between. It appears above the northern horizon at an angular height, or altitude, equal to the observer’s latitude. In San Francisco, for example, where the latitude is 38° N, the north celestial pole is 38° above the northern horizon.

For an observer at 38° N latitude, the south celestial pole is 38° below the southern horizon and, thus, never visible. As Earth turns, the whole sky seems to pivot about the north celestial pole. For this observer, stars within 38° of the North Pole can never set. They are always above the horizon, day and night. This part of the sky is called the north circumpolar zone . For observers in the continental United States, the Big Dipper, Little Dipper, and Cassiopeia are examples of star groups in the north circumpolar zone. On the other hand, stars within 38° of the south celestial pole never rise. That part of the sky is the south circumpolar zone. To most U.S. observers, the Southern Cross is in that zone. (Don’t worry if you are not familiar with the star groups just mentioned; we will introduce them more formally later on.)

At this particular time in Earth’s history, there happens to be a star very close to the north celestial pole. It is called Polaris , the pole star, and has the distinction of being the star that moves the least amount as the northern sky turns each day. Because it moved so little while the other stars moved much more, it played a special role in the mythology of several Native American tribes, for example (some called it the “fastener of the sky”).

Astronomy Basics

What’s your angle.

Astronomers measure how far apart objects appear in the sky by using angles. By definition, there are 360° in a circle, so a circle stretching completely around the celestial sphere contains 360°. The half-sphere or dome of the sky then contains 180° from horizon to opposite horizon. Thus, if two stars are 18° apart, their separation spans about 1/10 of the dome of the sky. To give you a sense of how big a degree is, the full Moon is about half a degree across. This is about the width of your smallest finger (pinkie) seen at arm’s length.

Rising and Setting of the Sun

We described the movement of stars in the night sky, but what about during the daytime? The stars continue to circle during the day, but the brilliance of the Sun makes them difficult to see. (The Moon can often be seen in the daylight, however.) On any given day, we can think of the Sun as being located at some position on the hypothetical celestial sphere. When the Sun rises—that is, when the rotation of Earth carries the Sun above the horizon—sunlight is scattered by the molecules of our atmosphere, filling our sky with light and hiding the stars above the horizon.

For thousands of years, astronomers have been aware that the Sun does more than just rise and set. It changes position gradually on the celestial sphere, moving each day about 1° to the east relative to the stars. Very reasonably, the ancients thought this meant the Sun was slowly moving around Earth, taking a period of time we call 1 year to make a full circle. Today, of course, we know it is Earth that is going around the Sun, but the effect is the same: the Sun’s position in our sky changes day to day. We have a similar experience when we walk around a campfire at night; we see the flames appear in front of each person seated about the fire in turn.

The path the Sun appears to take around the celestial sphere each year is called the ecliptic ( Figure 2.6 ). Because of its motion on the ecliptic, the Sun rises about 4 minutes later each day with respect to the stars. Earth must make just a bit more than one complete rotation (with respect to the stars) to bring the Sun up again.

As the months go by and we look at the Sun from different places in our orbit, we see it projected against different places in our orbit, and thus against different stars in the background ( Figure 2.6 and Table 2.1 )—or we would, at least, if we could see the stars in the daytime. In practice, we must deduce which stars lie behind and beyond the Sun by observing the stars visible in the opposite direction at night. After a year, when Earth has completed one trip around the Sun, the Sun will appear to have completed one circuit of the sky along the ecliptic.

The ecliptic does not lie along the celestial equator but is inclined to it at an angle of about 23.5°. In other words, the Sun’s annual path in the sky is not linked with Earth’s equator. This is because our planet’s axis of rotation is tilted by about 23.5° from a vertical line sticking out of the plane of the ecliptic ( Figure 2.7 ). Being tilted from “straight up” is not at all unusual among celestial bodies; Uranus and Pluto are actually tilted so much that they orbit the Sun “on their side.”

The inclination of the ecliptic is the reason the Sun moves north and south in the sky as the seasons change. In Earth, Moon, and Sky , we discuss the progression of the seasons in more detail.

Fixed and Wandering Stars

The Sun is not the only object that moves among the fixed stars. The Moon and each of the planets that are visible to the unaided eye—Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus (although just barely)—also change their positions slowly from day to day. During a single day, the Moon and planets all rise and set as Earth turns, just as the Sun and stars do. But like the Sun, they have independent motions among the stars, superimposed on the daily rotation of the celestial sphere. Noticing these motions, the Greeks of 2000 years ago distinguished between what they called the fixed stars —those that maintain fixed patterns among themselves through many generations—and the wandering stars , or planets . The word “planet,” in fact, means “wanderer” in ancient Greek.

Today, we do not regard the Sun and Moon as planets, but the ancients applied the term to all seven of the moving objects in the sky. Much of ancient astronomy was devoted to observing and predicting the motions of these celestial wanderers. They even dedicated a unit of time, the week, to the seven objects that move on their own; that’s why there are 7 days in a week. The Moon, being Earth’s nearest celestial neighbor, has the fastest apparent motion; it completes a trip around the sky in about 1 month (or moonth ). To do this, the Moon moves about 12°, or 24 times its own apparent width on the sky, each day.

Example 2.1

Angles in the sky.

This is true whether the motion is measured in kilometers per hour or degrees per hour; we just need to use consistent units.

As an example, let’s say you notice the bright star Sirius due south from your observing location in the Northern Hemisphere. You note the time, and then later, you note the time that Sirius sets below the horizon. You find that Sirius has traveled an angular distance of about 75° in 5 h. About how many hours will it take for Sirius to return to its original location?

The actual time is a few minutes shorter than this, and we will explore why in a later chapter.

Check Your Learning

The speed of the moon is 0.5°/1 h. To move a full 360°, the moon needs 720 h: 0.5 ° 1 h = 360 ° 720 h . 0.5 ° 1 h = 360 ° 720 h . Dividing 720 h by the conversion factor of 24 h/day reveals the lunar cycle is about 30 days.

The individual paths of the Moon and planets in the sky all lie close to the ecliptic, although not exactly on it. This is because the paths of the planets about the Sun, and of the Moon about Earth, are all in nearly the same plane, as if they were circles on a huge sheet of paper. The planets, the Sun, and the Moon are thus always found in the sky within a narrow 18-degree-wide belt, centered on the ecliptic, called the zodiac ( Figure 2.6 ). (The root of the term “zodiac” is the same as that of the word “zoo” and means a collection of animals; many of the patterns of stars within the zodiac belt reminded the ancients of animals, such as a fish or a goat.)

How the planets appear to move in the sky as the months pass is a combination of their actual motions plus the motion of Earth about the Sun; consequently, their paths are somewhat complex. As we will see, this complexity has fascinated and challenged astronomers for centuries.

Constellations

The backdrop for the motions of the “wanderers” in the sky is the canopy of stars. If there were no clouds in the sky and we were on a flat plain with nothing to obstruct our view, we could see about 3000 stars with the unaided eye. To find their way around such a multitude, the ancients found groupings of stars that made some familiar geometric pattern or (more rarely) resembled something they knew. Each civilization found its own patterns in the stars, much like a modern Rorschach test in which you are asked to discern patterns or pictures in a set of inkblots. The ancient Chinese, Egyptians, and Greeks, among others, found their own groupings—or constellations—of stars. These were helpful in navigating among the stars and in passing their star lore on to their children.

You may be familiar with some of the old star patterns we still use today, such as the Big Dipper, Little Dipper, and Orion the hunter, with his distinctive belt of three stars ( Figure 2.8 ). However, many of the stars we see are not part of a distinctive star pattern at all, and a telescope reveals millions of stars too faint for the eye to see. Therefore, during the early decades of the 20th century, astronomers from many countries decided to establish a more formal system for organizing the sky.

Today, we use the term constellation to mean one of 88 sectors into which we divide the sky, much as the United States is divided into 50 states. The modern boundaries between the constellations are imaginary lines in the sky running north–south and east–west, so that each point in the sky falls in a specific constellation, although, like the states, not all constellations are the same size. All the constellations are listed in Appendix L . Whenever possible, we have named each modern constellation after the Latin translations of one of the ancient Greek star patterns that lies within it. Thus, the modern constellation of Orion is a kind of box on the sky, which includes, among many other objects, the stars that made up the ancient picture of the hunter. Some people use the term asterism to denote an especially noticeable star pattern within a constellation (or sometimes spanning parts of several constellations). For example, the Big Dipper is an asterism within the constellation of Ursa Major, the Big Bear.

Students are sometimes puzzled because the constellations seldom resemble the people or animals for which they were named. In all likelihood, the Greeks themselves did not name groupings of stars because they looked like actual people or subjects (any more than the outline of Washington state resembles George Washington). Rather, they named sections of the sky in honor of the characters in their mythology and then fit the star configurations to the animals and people as best they could.

Link to Learning

This website about objects in the sky allows users to construct a detailed sky map showing the location and information about the Sun, Moon, planets, stars, constellations, and even satellites orbiting Earth. Begin by setting your observing location using the option in the menu in the upper right corner of the screen. An excellent website called Figures in the Sky shows the constellation figures imagined by cultures around the world.

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Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/astronomy-2e/pages/1-introduction
  • Authors: Andrew Fraknoi, David Morrison, Sidney Wolff
  • Publisher/website: OpenStax
  • Book title: Astronomy 2e
  • Publication date: Mar 9, 2022
  • Location: Houston, Texas
  • Book URL: https://openstax.org/books/astronomy-2e/pages/1-introduction
  • Section URL: https://openstax.org/books/astronomy-2e/pages/2-1-the-sky-above

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The Path of the Sun

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Additional Reading at www.astronomynotes.com:

  • Solar and Sidereal Day

During the day, we can see the Sun, but the bright daylight sky prevents us from seeing most other objects in the sky (on some days you can see the Moon during the day, and if you know where to look you can also sometimes see Venus).

As a thought experiment, think about what you might see if you were able to see the Sun and the stars in the sky during the daytime simultaneously.

  • What stars would you see behind the Sun?
  • Would you always see the same stars behind the Sun?

Test this with Starry Night !

  • Open up Starry Night , set it for Sunrise, and set the time flow rate to 1 hour.
  • Under the View menu or using the options tab, you can select "Hide Daylight," which will allow you to see the stars even when the Sun is up.
  • If you want, to help guide your eye, you can also turn on the constellation stick figures using the View menu, the Options tab, or just by typing the letter "k" on the keyboard.
  • Now, step through time one hour at a time by hitting the step forward button. Take note of the Sun's path and its position with respect to the stars.

Let's look at two movies made with Starry Night . The first illustrates the path of the Sun during one day (Sunrise to Sunset), following the instructions listed prior.

The second illustrates the position of the Sun at noon eastern on June 21, September 21, December 21, and March 21.

If you could see the Sun and the stars simultaneously, you would see that during the course of one day, the Sun would be inside one constellation (to be more specific, one of the constellations of the Zodiac). To be even more specific, realize that the constellations are made up of stars far in the background, so when we say the Sun is "inside" a constellation, we mean that we are seeing the Sun in projection in front of a specific group of distant stars.

In the first of the two movies, notice the Sun's position relative to the constellation Virgo at 7:00 AM, noon and 6:00 PM. As we discussed at the beginning of the lesson, it is the rotation of the Earth that causes the Sun and the stars to move across the sky, so we should expect that the Sun and the stars should both appear to move at the same rate. Thus, the Sun will be seen inside of the same constellation during the entire day. That is, if the Sun appears to be in the constellation of Gemini at dawn, then it will still be in Gemini at noon and at Sunset.

This is mostly correct, however, there is one effect that we are neglecting to take into consideration. The Earth isn’t just rotating in a fixed spot in space. The Earth is also orbiting around the Sun. In one year, the Earth will make a complete trip around the Sun. So, in December, the Earth will be on one side of the Sun, and six months later, in June, it will be on the opposite side of the Sun.

The second Starry Night movie shown above demonstrates that in December, when the Earth is facing the Sun, the constellation behind the Sun is Sagittarius. Twelve hours later, when the Earth has rotated so that it is night, the Earth is facing directly away from the Sun, towards the constellation of Gemini. In June, the situation is completely reversed because the Earth is on the opposite side of the Sun. The constellation behind the Sun at noon in June is Gemini, and twelve hours later, when the Earth is facing directly away from the Sun, it is pointed towards the constellation of Sagittarius.

This is reasonably easy to visualize when you think of the extreme case of the differences in the position of the Earth six months apart, but what happens on a day to day basis? The way to visualize it is as follows. The stars are so far away from the Earth that, again, for our purposes, we can consider them to be fixed. We know that the rotation of the Earth causes stars to appear to make circles or arcs on the sky that start in the east and move westward. A natural question to ask is, “How long does it take for star A to appear in the same spot in the sky one day later?” That is, let’s say that star A is “transiting your meridian” (this means that if you draw the imaginary line on the sky that connects due North to due South, the star is passing this line at this particular instant in time), how long will it be until star A transits your meridian the next time? You may be tempted to say 24 hours, but the correct answer is 23 hours and 56 minutes! If you do the same exercise for the Sun—that is, if you calculate the time between successive transits of the Sun—it is 24 hours (although it does vary over the course of the year, and some days are slightly longer and others are slightly shorter than 24 hours).

The length of time between transits for a star (any star) is called a Sidereal Day , and the length of time between transits for the Sun is called a Solar Day . The difference is caused by the slow drift of the Earth around the Sun. Because the Earth has moved 1/365th of the way around the Sun in a day, it has to rotate more than 360 degrees in order for the Sun to appear in the same part of the sky (e.g., transiting the meridian) as it did yesterday. However, since the stars are so far away, the Earth’s orbit around the Sun doesn’t affect their apparent position in the sky, so the Earth only needs to rotate 360 degrees in order for them to appear in the same part of the sky. Because of this effect, the Sun appears to slowly drift eastward compared to the background stars, and the cumulative effect of this drift is that the Sun will appear to be in Gemini in June and Sagittarius in December.

graphic illustration showing how rotating earth's view of the Sun changes as the Earth orbits the Sun

Note in the figure above that when the Earth rotates 360 degrees, it goes from position 1 to position 2, and a distant star will appear to be in the same position as seen from Earth. However, the Earth has to go from position 1 to position 3 for the Sun to appear in the same position.

  • Open up Starry Night , and set it for a time when it is completely dark, say 11:00 PM.
  • Using the View menu turn on the Local Meridian line.
  • Either adjust the time slightly or let time flow forward until a bright star is on the meridian.
  • Now, from the time flow rate box, select "days" as the time step.
  • If you click on the forward button, you should see that each day at the same time, your bright star that started on the meridian will get further and further from the meridian.
  • Next, click the backward button so that the bright star is back on the meridian.
  • Now, change the time step to be "sidereal days."
  • Now, if you click the forward button, your star should remain on the meridian without moving each time you click.

Image that reads Space Place and links to spaceplace.nasa.gov.

How Long is a Year on Other Planets?

Here is how long it takes each of the planets in our solar system to orbit around the Sun (in Earth days):

one trip around the sun is called

A year on Earth is approximately 365 days. Why is that considered a year? Well, 365 days is about how long it takes for Earth to orbit all the way around the Sun one time.

Image of the Earth with the Sun behind it.

A year is measured by how long it takes a planet to orbit around its star. Earth orbits around the Sun in approximately 365 days. Credit: NASA/Terry Virts

It’s not exactly this simple though. An Earth year is actually about 365 days, plus approximately 6 hours. Read more about that here .

All of the other planets in our solar system also orbit the Sun. So, how long is a year on those planets? Well, it depends on where they are orbiting!

Planets that orbit closer to the Sun than Earth have shorter years than Earth. Planets that orbit farther from the Sun than Earth have longer years than Earth.

A planet orbiting close to its star has a shorter year than a planet orbiting farther from its star. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

This happens for two main reasons.

  • If a planet is close to the Sun, the distance it orbits around the Sun is fairly short. This distance is called an orbital path .
  • The closer a planet travels to the Sun, the more the Sun’s gravity can pull on the planet. The stronger the pull of the Sun’s gravity, the faster the planet orbits.

Check out how long a year is on each planet below!

one trip around the sun is called

Year: 88 Earth Days Distance from Sun: ~35 million miles (58 million km)

one trip around the sun is called

Year: 225 Earth Days Distance from Sun: ~67 million miles (108 million km)

one trip around the sun is called

Year: 365 Earth Days Distance from Sun: ~93 million miles (150 million km)

one trip around the sun is called

Year: 687 Earth Days Distance from Sun: ~142 million miles (228 million km)

one trip around the sun is called

Year: 4,333 Earth Days Distance from Sun: ~484 million miles (778 million km)

one trip around the sun is called

Year: 10,759 Earth Days Distance from Sun: ~887 million miles (1.43 billion km)

one trip around the sun is called

Year: 30,687 Earth Days Distance from Sun: ~1.78 billion miles (2.87 billion km)

one trip around the sun is called

Year: 60,190 Earth Days Distance from Sun: ~2.80 billion miles (4.5 billion km)

Why does NASA care about years on other planets?

NASA needs to know how other planets orbit the Sun because it helps us travel to those planets! For example, if we want a spacecraft to safely travel to another planet, we have to make sure we know where that planet is in its orbit. And we also have to make sure we don’t run into any other orbiting objects — like planets or asteroids — along the way.

Scientists who study Mars also need to keep a Martian calendar to schedule what rovers and landers will be doing and when.

Mars and Earth are always moving. So, if we want to land a robotic explorer on Mars, we have to understand how Earth and Mars orbit the Sun. Watch this video to learn more about the Martian year. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

*Length of year on other planets calculated from data on the NASA Solar System Dynamics website .

If you liked this, you may like:

Illustration of a game controller that links to the Space Place Games menu.

What is one complete trip around the sun?

User Avatar

It is called a revolution.

chau samuel ∙

That's one revolution which is called a "year".

Montrell Bedford ∙

Revaluation

Anonymous ∙

Revolución

Add your answer:

imp

What do you call it if the earth makes one complete trip around the sun?

One complete trip around the sun by the earth is called a year. It is also called a revolution.

Which of these words means a complete trip around the sun?

An orbit, a year, an ellipse or even a revolution.

What is a planets trip around the sun called?

An 'orbit', or more commonly, a year.Orbit.

What is the length of time for one complete revolution of the earth around the sun?

Earth takes 24 hours to complete one revolution of the earth around sun

What is one complete of a planet around the sun?

Does the earth makes one trip around the sun per year.

The earth makes one complete trip around the sun per year.

Which planet makes one complete trip around the sun in short time?

Mercury has the shortest orbital period. It takes only 89.9691 days to make one complete trip around the sun.

What period of time does the sun take to complete one trip around the sky along the ecliptic?

What term means a complete trip around the sun, what word would describe a complete trip around the sun, what is the time it takes a planet to complete a single trip around the sun.

Our planet takes 24 hours (one day)

The time it takes for the earth to make a complete trip around the Sun is called a.....?

One trip around the sun.

For the Earth it takes 365 days to complete one orbit around the sun. Through that time we experience four seasons due to the changing angle at which the sun's rays hit the earth.

How long does it take the earth to make one trip around the sun?

It takes the earth one year, or 365 days to make one trip around the sun.

Which planet takes the most time to complete it's trip around the sun Saturn mars neptune venus?

Neptune does, since it's the furthest one out from the sun.

What is the time it takes for planet to complete 1 orbit around the Sun called?

A year. Any planet, any length of time, for that planet once around the sun is their year.

imp

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The Sun is a 4.5 billion-year-old yellow dwarf star – a hot glowing ball of hydrogen and helium – at the center of our solar system. It’s about 93 million miles (150 million kilometers) from Earth and it’s our solar system’s only star. Without the Sun’s energy, life as we know it could not exist on our home planet.

From our vantage point on Earth, the Sun may appear like an unchanging source of light and heat in the sky. But the Sun is a dynamic star, constantly changing and sending energy out into space. The science of studying the Sun and its influence throughout the solar system is called heliophysics.

The Sun is the largest object in our solar system. Its diameter is about 865,000 miles (1.4 million kilometers). Its gravity holds the solar system together, keeping everything from the biggest planets to the smallest bits of debris in orbit around it.

Even though the Sun is the center of our solar system and essential to our survival, it’s only an average star in terms of its size. Stars up to 100 times larger have been found. And many solar systems have more than one star. By studying our Sun, scientists can better understand the workings of distant stars.

The hottest part of the Sun is its core, where temperatures top 27 million °F (15 million °C). The part of the Sun we call its surface – the photosphere – is a relatively cool 10,000 °F (5,500 °C). In one of the Sun’s biggest mysteries, the Sun’s outer atmosphere, the corona, gets hotter the farther it stretches from the surface. The corona reaches up to 3.5 million °F (2 million °C) – much, much hotter than the photosphere.

The Sun has been called by many names. The Latin word for Sun is “sol,” which is the main adjective for all things Sun-related: solar. Helios, the Sun god in ancient Greek mythology, lends his name to many Sun-related terms as well, such as heliosphere and helioseismology.

Potential for Life

The Sun could not harbor life as we know it because of its extreme temperatures and radiation. Yet life on Earth is only possible because of the Sun’s light and energy.

Size and Distance

Our Sun is a medium-sized star with a radius of about 435,000 miles (700,000 kilometers). Many stars are much larger – but the Sun is far more massive than our home planet: it would take more than 330,000 Earths to match the mass of the Sun, and it would take 1.3 million Earths to fill the Sun's volume.

The Sun is about 93 million miles (150 million kilometers) from Earth. Its nearest stellar neighbor is the Alpha Centauri triple star system: red dwarf star Proxima Centauri is 4.24 light-years away, and Alpha Centauri A and B – two sunlike stars orbiting each other – are 4.37 light-years away. A light-year is the distance light travels in one year, which equals about 6 trillion miles (9.5 trillion kilometers).

Orbit and Rotation

The Sun is located in the Milky Way galaxy in a spiral arm called the Orion Spur that extends outward from the Sagittarius arm.

The Sun orbits the center of the Milky Way, bringing with it the planets, asteroids, comets, and other objects in our solar system. Our solar system is moving with an average velocity of 450,000 miles per hour (720,000 kilometers per hour). But even at this speed, it takes about 230 million years for the Sun to make one complete trip around the Milky Way.

The Sun rotates on its axis as it revolves around the galaxy. Its spin has a tilt of 7.25 degrees with respect to the plane of the planets’ orbits. Since the Sun is not solid, different parts rotate at different rates. At the equator, the Sun spins around once about every 25 Earth days, but at its poles, the Sun rotates once on its axis every 36 Earth days.

As a star, the Sun doesn’t have any moons, but the planets and their moons orbit the Sun.

The Sun would have been surrounded by a disk of gas and dust early in its history when the solar system was first forming, about 4.6 billion years ago. Some of that dust is still around today, in several dust rings that circle the Sun. They trace the orbits of planets, whose gravity tugs dust into place around the Sun.

The Sun formed about 4.6 billion years ago in a giant, spinning cloud of gas and dust called the solar nebula. As the nebula collapsed under its own gravity, it spun faster and flattened into a disk. Most of the nebula's material was pulled toward the center to form our Sun, which accounts for 99.8% of our solar system’s mass. Much of the remaining material formed the planets and other objects that now orbit the Sun. (The rest of the leftover gas and dust was blown away by the young Sun's early solar wind.)

Like all stars, our Sun will eventually run out of energy. When it starts to die, the Sun will expand into a red giant star, becoming so large that it will engulf Mercury and Venus, and possibly Earth as well. Scientists predict the Sun is a little less than halfway through its lifetime and will last another 5 billion years or so before it becomes a white dwarf.

The Sun is a huge ball of hydrogen and helium held together by its own gravity.

The Sun has several regions. The interior regions include the core, the radiative zone, and the convection zone. Moving outward – the visible surface or photosphere is next, then the chromosphere, followed by the transition zone, and then the corona – the Sun’s expansive outer atmosphere.

Once material leaves the corona at supersonic speeds, it becomes the solar wind, which forms a huge magnetic "bubble" around the Sun, called the heliosphere. The heliosphere extends beyond the orbit of the planets in our solar system. Thus, Earth exists inside the Sun’s atmosphere. Outside the heliosphere is interstellar space.

The core is the hottest part of the Sun. Nuclear reactions here – where hydrogen is fused to form helium – power the Sun’s heat and light. Temperatures top 27 million °F (15 million °C) and it’s about 86,000 miles (138,000 kilometers) thick. The density of the Sun’s core is about 150 grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm³). That is approximately 8 times the density of gold (19.3 g/cm³) or 13 times the density of lead (11.3 g/cm³).

Energy from the core is carried outward by radiation. This radiation bounces around the radiative zone, taking about 170,000 years to get from the core to the top of the convection zone. Moving outward, in the convection zone, the temperature drops below 3.5 million °F (2 million °C). Here, large bubbles of hot plasma (a soup of ionized atoms) move upward toward the photosphere, which is the layer we think of as the Sun's surface.

The Sun doesn’t have a solid surface like Earth and the other rocky planets and moons. The part of the Sun commonly called its surface is the photosphere. The word photosphere means "light sphere" – which is apt because this is the layer that emits the most visible light. It’s what we see from Earth with our eyes. (Hopefully, it goes without saying – but never look directly at the Sun without protecting your eyes.)

Although we call it the surface, the photosphere is actually the first layer of the solar atmosphere. It's about 250 miles thick, with temperatures reaching about 10,000 degrees Fahrenheit (5,500 degrees Celsius). That's much cooler than the blazing core, but it's still hot enough to make carbon – like diamonds and graphite – not just melt, but boil. Most of the Sun's radiation escapes outward from the photosphere into space.

Above the photosphere is the chromosphere, the transition zone, and the corona. Not all scientists refer to the transition zone as its own region – it is simply the thin layer where the chromosphere rapidly heats and becomes the corona. The photosphere, chromosphere, and corona are all part of the Sun’s atmosphere. (The corona is sometimes casually referred to as “the Sun’s atmosphere,” but it is actually the Sun’s upper atmosphere.)

The Sun’s atmosphere is where we see features such as sunspots, coronal holes, and solar flares.

Visible light from these top regions of the Sun is usually too weak to be seen against the brighter photosphere, but during total solar eclipses, when the Moon covers the photosphere, the chromosphere looks like a fine, red rim around the Sun, while the corona forms a beautiful white crown ("corona" means crown in Latin and Spanish) with plasma streamers narrowing outward, forming shapes that look like flower petals.

In one of the Sun’s biggest mysteries, the corona is much hotter than the layers immediately below it. (Imagine walking away from a bonfire only to get warmer.) The source of coronal heating is a major unsolved puzzle in the study of the Sun.

Magnetosphere

The Sun generates magnetic fields that extend out into space to form the interplanetary magnetic field – the magnetic field that pervades our solar system. The field is carried through the solar system by the solar wind – a stream of electrically charged gas blowing outward from the Sun in all directions. The vast bubble of space dominated by the Sun’s magnetic field is called the heliosphere. Since the Sun rotates, the magnetic field spins out into a large rotating spiral, known as the Parker spiral. This spiral has a shape something like the pattern of water from a rotating garden sprinkler.

The Sun doesn't behave the same way all the time. It goes through phases of high and low activity, which make up the solar cycle. Approximately every 11 years, the Sun’s geographic poles change their magnetic polarity – that is, the north and south magnetic poles swap. During this cycle, the Sun's photosphere, chromosphere, and corona change from quiet and calm to violently active.

The height of the Sun’s activity cycle , known as solar maximum, is a time of greatly increased solar storm activity. Sunspots, eruptions called solar flares, and coronal mass ejections are common at solar maximum. The latest solar cycle – Solar Cycle 25 – started in December 2019 when solar minimum occurred, according to the Solar Cycle 25 Prediction Panel, an international group of experts co-sponsored by NASA and NOAA. Scientists now expect the Sun’s activity to ramp up toward the next predicted maximum in July 2025.

Solar activity can release huge amounts of energy and particles, some of which impact us here on Earth. Much like weather on Earth, conditions in space – known as space weather – are always changing with the Sun’s activity. "Space weather" can interfere with satellites , GPS , and radio communications . It also can cripple power grids , and corrode pipelines that carry oil and gas.

The strongest geomagnetic storm on record is the Carrington Event , named for British astronomer Richard Carrington who observed the Sept. 1, 1859, solar flare that triggered the event. Telegraph systems worldwide went haywire. Spark discharges shocked telegraph operators and set their telegraph paper on fire. Just before dawn the next day, skies all over Earth erupted in red, green, and purple auroras – the result of energy and particles from the Sun interacting with Earth’s atmosphere. Reportedly, the auroras were so brilliant that newspapers could be read as easily as in daylight. The auroras, or Northern Lights, were visible as far south as Cuba, the Bahamas, Jamaica, El Salvador, and Hawaii.

Another solar flare on March 13, 1989, caused geomagnetic storms that disrupted electric power transmission from the Hydro Québec generating station in Canada, plunging 6 million people into darkness for 9 hours. The 1989 flare also caused power surges that melted power transformers in New Jersey.

In December 2005, X-rays from a solar storm disrupted satellite-to-ground communications and Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation signals for about 10 minutes.

NOAA’s Space Weather Prediction Center monitors active regions on the Sun and issues watches, warnings, and alerts for hazardous space weather events .

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Makemake Overview

Dwarf planet Makemake – along with Pluto, Haumea, and Eris – is located in the Kuiper Belt , a donut-shaped region of icy bodies beyond the orbit of Neptune. Makemake is slightly smaller than Pluto, and is the second-brightest object in the Kuiper Belt as seen from Earth while Pluto is the brightest. It takes about 305 Earth years for this dwarf planet to make one trip around the Sun.

Makemake holds an important place in the history of solar system studies because it was one of the objects – along with Eris – whose discovery prompted the International Astronomical Union to reconsider the definition of a planet, and to create the new group of dwarf planets.

Makemake was first observed in March 2005 by M.E. Brown, C.A. Trujillo, and D.L. Rabinowitz at the Palomar Observatory, California. Its unofficial codename was Easterbunny, Brown said, "in honor of the fact that it was discovered just a few days past Easter." Before this dwarf planet was confirmed, its provisional name was 2005 FY9. In 2016, NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope spotted a small, dark moon orbiting Makemake.

Makemake moon

Makemake was named after the Rapanui god of fertility.

Potential for Life

The surface of Makemake is extremely cold, so it seems unlikely that life could exist there.

Size and Distance

With a radius of approximately 444 miles (715 kilometers), Makemake is 1/9 the radius of Earth. If Earth were the size of a nickel, Makemake would be about as big as a mustard seed.

From an average distance of 4,253,000,000 miles (6,847,000,000 kilometers), Makemake is 45.8 astronomical units away from the Sun. One astronomical unit (abbreviated as AU), is the distance from the Sun to Earth. From this distance, it takes sunlight 6 hours and 20 minutes to travel from the Sun to Makemake.

Orbit and Rotation

Makemake takes 305 Earth years to make one trip around the Sun. As Makemake orbits the Sun, it completes one rotation every 22 and a half hours, making its day length similar to Earth and Mars.

Makemake has one provisional moon, S/2015 (136472) 1, and it's nicknamed MK 2. It is more than 1,300 times fainter than Makemake. MK 2 was seen approximately 13,000 miles from the dwarf planet, and its radius is estimated to be about 50 miles (80 kilometers).

There are no known rings around Makemake.

Dwarf planet Makemake is a member of a group of objects that orbit in a disc-like zone beyond the orbit of Neptune called the Kuiper Belt. This distant realm is populated with thousands of miniature icy worlds, which formed early in the history of our solar system about 4.5 billion years ago. These icy, rocky bodies are called Kuiper Belt objects, transneptunian objects, or plutoids.

Scientists know very little about Makemake's structure.

We can't see too many details of Makemake's surface from so far away, but it does appear to be a reddish-brownish color, similar to Pluto. Scientists have also detected frozen methane and ethane on its surface. In fact, pellets of frozen methane as big as half an inch (1 centimeter) in diameter may rest on Makemake's cold surface.

Makemake may develop a very thin atmosphere, most likely made of nitrogen, near perihelion – when it is closest to the Sun.

Magnetosphere

Scientists do not know if Makemake has a magnetosphere.

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Trip Around The Sun Meaning Explained.

Trip around the sun meaning for birthday cards & more.

I’ve seen people asking about the trip around the sun meaning, so here it is. it’s sometimes used as another way to celebrate a birthday, often a child first birthday. There are now plenty of gifts and cards available, in celebration of this.

A trip around the sun means that the Earth has completed one full orbit around the sun. This happens once every 365.24 days. It’s also called a solar year. The word “solstice” comes from the Latin word for “sun,” solstitium. A solstice is when the sun appears to stand still in the sky. The June solstice is when the sun is highest in the sky and the December solstice is when the sun is lowest in the sky. The word “equinox” comes from the Latin words aequus, meaning “equal,” and nox, meaning “night.” An equinox is when the day and night are of equal length. There are two equinoxes every year, around March 20 and September 23.

What is One Trip Around the Sun Called?

A trip around the sun is also called a solar year. The word “solstice” comes from the Latin word for “sun,” solstitium. A solstice is when the sun appears to stand still in the sky. The June solstice is when the sun is highest in the sky and the December solstice is when the sun is lowest in the sky. The word “equinox” comes from the Latin words aequus, meaning “equal,” and nox, meaning “night.” An equinox is when the day and night are of equal length. There are two equinoxes every year, around March 20 and September 23. This should give an answer to the trip around the sun meaning question.

Why Does it Take 365.24 Days to Orbit the Sun?

The Earth’s orbit around the sun is not a perfect circle. It’s actually an ellipse, which means it’s oval-shaped. The Earth is closest to the sun in January (this is called perihelion) and farthest from the sun in July (this is called aphelion). This difference in distance affects how long it takes the Earth to go around the sun.

It’s also worth noting that the Earth’s orbit isn’t always the same. It can speed up or slow down very slightly. This has a big effect over long periods of time. For example, a day was once about 86,400 seconds long. But because of changes in the Earth’s orbit, it’s now about 86,400.002 seconds long. That might not sound like much, but over the course of a year, it adds up to about 24 milliseconds.

The Earth’s orbit also isn’t exactly 365.24 days. It’s actually about 365.24219 days, or 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, and 45 seconds. This 1/1000th of a day discrepancy is why we have leap years every 4 years.

All of these factors — the shape of the Earth’s orbit, its speed, and the effects of other planets — conspire to make a solar year just slightly longer than 365 days.

What is One Trip Around the Sun Called

another year around the sun meaning

As seen from above the Northern Hemisphere, Earth revolves around the sun at a distance of 149.60 million kilometers counterclockwise. Earth   travels 940 million kilometers in one complete orbit, or one year. This distance is equal to 5.879×10^−6 of the distance from Earth to the nearest star, Proxima Centauri. Due to this vast distance, light from the sun takes about 8 minutes 17 seconds to reach Earth at a speed of 299,792 kilometers per second or about 186,000 miles per second.

The time it takes for Earth to complete one orbit around the sun, one sidereal year, is 365.25636 days or 31,557,600 seconds. This value is derived from the Earth’s rotation rate of 360 degrees every 24 hours (86,400 seconds), which equals 0.985647358 degrees per second. Dividing this into 360 degrees gives the sidereal year of 365.25636 days (31,557,600 seconds). This answers, hopefully, the trip around the sun meaning questions.

one trip around the sun is called

The time it takes for Earth to complete one orbit around the sun, one tropical year, is 365.24 days or 31,556,952 seconds. This value is derived by more accurately measuring the time between spring equinoxes.

The tropical year is shorter than the sidereal year because Earth’s orbit is elliptical, and Earth moves faster when it is closer to the sun (perihelion) than when it is farther away (aphelion). Earth is closest to the sun in early January (perihelion) and farthest from the sun in early July (aphelion). This difference in distance affects how long it takes the Earth to go around the sun.

how long is a trip around the sun?

A solar year is 365.24 days long, which is why we have leap years every 4 years. This 1/1000th of a day discrepancy is due to the Earth’s orbit not being a perfect circle, and the Earth’s speed as it goes around the sun. The Earth is also affected by the pull of other planets. All of these factors conspire to make a solar year just slightly longer than 365 days.

A sidereal year is 365.25636 days long, and a tropical year is 365.24 days. A sidereal year is the time it takes for Earth to complete one orbit around the sun, and a tropical year is the time it takes for Earth to complete one orbit around the sun, as measured from the spring equinox. The tropical year is shorter than the sidereal year because Earth’s orbit is elliptical, and Earth moves faster when it is closer to the sun (perihelion) than when it is farther away (aphelion).

So, a trip around the sun is 365.24 days long, give or take a few milliseconds. And that’s why we have leap years!

Fatlad Says A lap around the sun meaning

lap around the sun meaning

What is a birthday trip around the sun.

This is a title of a book by Emmy Suparmin. A birthday trip around the sun is when you complete one orbit around the sun, or 365.24 days. This is also known as a solar year. A sidereal year is when you complete one orbit of the sun, as measured from the spring equinox. This is 365.25636 days long. And a tropical year is when you complete one orbit of the sun, as measured from the vernal equinox. This is 365.24 days long. So, a trip around the sun is 365.24 days long, give or take a few milliseconds. And that’s why we have leap years!

As this saying has become more popular, there are now gifts, cards, and party accessories available to help celebrate. As of yet, we have not tried or tested any of these as part of our product reviews , but we’ll update if we do get chance.

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What is One Trip Around the Sun Called?

A year or one trip around the Sun indicates the time it takes for a planet to cycle around the sun. Every fourth year, classified as a leap year, the 6 hours and 9 minutes add to nearly an extra day, with the extra day added as of February 29th. The sun rotates slowly, taking 25 days at the equator and 35 days at the poles to complete one full revolution. You would have heard of the phrase one trip around the sun. Do you know the meaning of it? Read this article to learn about another trip around the sun meaning.

Table of Contents

1. How Far is One Trip Around the Sun?

Photo by Javier Miranda on Unsplash

As seen from above the Northern Hemisphere, Earth revolves around the sun at a distance of 149.60 million kilometers counterclockwise. Earth travels 940 million kilometers in one complete orbit, which takes 365.256 days (1 sidereal year). So for one trip around the Sun, the earth is so far away that light from the sun, which travels at a speed of 186,000 miles per second, takes nearly 8 minutes to reach us. (See In Which Direction does the Sun Set?)

2. How many Trips Around the Sun in a Year?

The Earth spins on its axis every year and completes one revolution around the sun, indicating one trip around the sun . Our orbital shifts are so minor every year that they’re almost unnoticeable, given how short a single revolution is compared to how long the planet has been revolving around the sun (4.5 billion years). Also, check out what is Revolution and Rotation?

3. What is One Trip Around the Sun called?

The time it takes Earth to complete one revolution around the sun is described as a Solar Year. The term revolution refers to a complete circle around the sun. The Earth’s orbit around the sun takes 365 1/4 days to complete. (See What is the Third Planet closest to the Sun?)

4. What is Another Trip Around the Sun meaning?

Image by Thomas B. from Pixabay

Another trip around the sun is a way to wish a person a birthday , as in saying that the person has completed one more year of their life. One year is over when the Earth revolves around the sun, which happens after 365 days, which signifies one year. This statement means the person has completed one year of their life and revolution shows the completion of one year. (See Why some people don’t like celebrating their birthdays?)

5. What does Another Lap Around the Sun mean?

A birthday corresponds to a full rotation of the Earth around the sun, which takes 365 Earth days or 8,760 hours. This is also a way to wish someone a birthday as a lap around the Earth, which means that the person has completed one year on this planet. One revolution around the sun by the Earth means that one year is complete, and this shows the connection that the movement of the Earth can have in our daily lives. (See Where is the Center of the Earth Located?)

6. What is a Birthday Trip Around the Sun?

A birthday marks the beginning of a new 365-day orbit around the sun . This is an especially good time to reflect on a year that has been full of blessings, learning, and challenges. Individuals have discovered this as they have gotten older, they find solace in the little things in life. The main focus here is that one trip around that sun refers to the fact that that year is over or complete. Also, check out how many Suns are in the Universe?

7. Is a Birthday a Journey Around the Sun?

Birthday marks the end of one year, which is marked by the completion of one revolution around the sun. It can also be used as a way to wish a person their birthday to celebrate their journey and also the Earth’s journey around the Sun. (See When is your Half Birthday?)

8. Trip Around the Sun Birthday Card

Photo by Nick Fewings on UnsplashHappy birthday,

Ways to wish would be

  • I wish you a birthday as wonderful as you are!
  • Happy birthday, and here’s to another trip around the sun!
  • Birthday greetings from a cheerful, dancing, confetti-popping, cake-filled world! (Also read How Old would Martin Luther King be today?)

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February 20, 2024

The Brightest Quasar Ever Seen Eats a ‘Sun’ Every Day

The quasar, as bright as 500 trillion suns, has evaded astronomers for over 40 years because of its incredible luminosity

By Robert Lea & SPACE.com

Bright core of a distant galaxy illuminated by a supermassive black hole.

An artist's impression of the record-breakin quasar J059-4351, the bright core of a distant galaxy illuminated by a supermassive black hole. This black hole has a mass of 17 billion times that of our sun, and consumes an entire sun's mass of material per day.

ESO/M. Kornmesser

A newly discovered quasar is a real record-breaker. Not only is it the brightest quasar ever seen, but it's also the brightest astronomical object in general ever seen. It's also powered by the hungriest and fastest-growing black hole ever seen — one that consumes the equivalent of over one sun's mass a day.

The quasar, J0529-4351, is located so far from Earth that its light has taken 12 billion years to reach us, meaning it is seen as it was when the 13.8 billion-year-old universe was just under 2 billion years old.

The supermassive black hole at the heart of the quasar is estimated to be between 17 billion and 19 billion times the mass of the sun; each year, it eats, or "accretes" the gas and dust equivalent to 370 solar masses. This makes J0529-4351 so luminous that if it were placed next to the sun, it would be 500 trillion times brighter than our brilliant star.

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"We have discovered the fastest-growing black hole known to date. It has a mass of 17 billion suns and eats just over a sun per day," team leader and Australian National University astronomer Christian Wolf said in a statement . "This makes it the most luminous object in the known universe."

J0529-4351 was spotted in data over 4 decades ago but was so bright that astronomers failed to identify it as a quasar.

How a quasar fooled astronomers for 44 years

Quasars are regions at the hearts of galaxies that host supermassive black holes surrounded by the gas and dust these voids feed on. The violent conditions in disks of matter around such active black holes, called accretion disk s and generated by the immense gravity of the objects, heat the gas and dust and cause it to glow brightly.

Additionally, any matter in these disks that doesn't get accreted by a black hole is channeled to the poles of the cosmic titan, where it is blasted out as a jet of particles at near the speed of light, also generating powerful light. As a result, quasars in these Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) regions can shine brighter than the combined light of billions of stars in the galaxies around them.

But even for these exceptionally bright events, J0529-4351 stands out.

The light of J0529-4351 comes from the massive accretion disk that feeds the supermassive black hole, which the team estimates has a diameter of around 7 light-years. That means crossing this accretion disk would be equivalent to traveling between Earth and the sun around 45,000 times.

"It is a surprise that it has remained unknown until today when we already know about a million less impressive quasars. It has literally been staring us in the face until now," team member and Australian National University scientist, Christopher Onken, said in the statement.

J0529-4351 was initially spotted in the Schmidt Southern Sky Survey, which dates back to 1980, but it took decades to confirm it was a quasar to begin with. Large astronomical surveys deliver so much data that astronomers need machine-learning models to analyze them and sort quasars from other celestial objects.

These models are also trained using currently discovered objects, which means they can miss candidates with exceptional properties like J0529-4351. Indeed, this quasar is so bright that models passed it over believing it to be a star located relatively close to Earth.

This misclassification was spotted in 2023, when astronomers realized J0529-4351 is, in fact, a quasar after having a look at the object's region using the 2.3-meter telescope at the Siding Spring Observatory in Australia.

The new discovery that this is actually the brightest quasar ever was made when the X-shooter spectrograph instrument on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in the Atacama Desert region of Northern Chile followed up on J0529-4351.

Astronomers aren't done with J0529-4351 just yet.

The team thinks the supermassive black hole at the heart of this quasar is feeding near the Eddington limit , or the point at which the radiation it puts out should push away gas and dust, cutting off this black hole's cosmic larder.

Confirming this will require a further detailed investigation. Fortunately, however, the greedy supermassive black hole is the perfect target for an upgraded GRAVITY + instrument at the VLT, which will improve the high-contrast precision on bright objects.

J0529-4351 will also be investigated by the upcoming Extremely Large Telescope (ELT), currently under construction in the Atacama Desert.

However, it is the thrill of finding something new and exciting that drives the leader of the team behind this record-breaking discovery.

"Personally, I simply like the chase. For a few minutes a day, I get to feel like a child again, playing treasure hunt, and now I bring everything to the table that I have learned since," Wolf concluded.

The team's research was published on Monday (Feb. 19) in the journal Nature Astronomy.

Copyright 2023 Space.com , a Future company. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.

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  1. "Another Trip Around the Sun"- Meaning and Examples of This Common

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    It takes 365.25 days to complete one trip around the Sun. That extra quarter of a day presents a challenge to our calendar system, which counts one year as 365 days. To keep our yearly calendars consistent with our orbit around the Sun, every four years we add one day. That day is called a leap day, and the year it's added to is called a leap year.

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  11. How Long is a Year on Other Planets?

    If a planet is close to the Sun, the distance it orbits around the Sun is fairly short. This distance is called an orbital path. The closer a planet travels to the Sun, the more the Sun's gravity can pull on the planet. The stronger the pull of the Sun's gravity, the faster the planet orbits. Check out how long a year is on each planet below!

  12. What is one complete trip around the sun?

    What is one complete trip around the sun? Updated: 8/10/2023 Wiki User ∙ 11y ago Study now See answers (7) Best Answer Copy It is called a revolution. Wiki User ∙ 14y ago This answer is:...

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    Mr. Lee used a globe to demonstrate to his class that earth rotates around a central line. He also demonstrated that earth travels around the sun by picking up the globe and walking in a circle around his desk. It takes earth one year to make one trip around the sun. What word is used to describe one object moving around another object?

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  18. Trip Around The Sun Meaning Explained.

    A trip around the sun means that the Earth has completed one full orbit around the sun. This happens once every 365.24 days. It's also called a solar year. The word "solstice" comes from the Latin word for "sun," solstitium. A solstice is when the sun appears to stand still in the sky. The June solstice is when the sun is highest in ...

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  20. What is One Trip Around the Sun Called?

    The Earth spins on its axis every year and completes one revolution around the sun, indicating one trip around the sun. Our orbital shifts are so minor every year that they're almost unnoticeable, given how short a single revolution is compared to how long the planet has been revolving around the sun (4.5 billion years).

  21. The Brightest Quasar Ever Seen Eats a 'Sun' Every Day

    The supermassive black hole at the heart of the quasar is estimated to be between 17 billion and 19 billion times the mass of the sun; each year, it eats, or "accretes" the gas and dust equivalent ...