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How to Road Trip Across the United States on a Budget

how to travel across the united states

The Great American Road Trip is a rite of passage in the United States . We Americans have a unique fascination with the open road. It’s built into our cultural DNA. In Jazz Age America, the car was a symbol of freedom — a chance to escape your small town and the watchful eyes of parents.

As the highway system was developed in the 1950s, a wave of kids set out on the road to explore the country, giving new life to America’s car and road trip culture. Today, many still dream of getting in a car and driving into wide open spaces for months on end.

I’ve had the privilege of taking several multi-week and multi-month road trips around the country over the years. From traveling the Deep South to criss-crossing the country coast to coast , I’ve visited almost every state, exploring the myriad nooks and crannies of Uncle Sam’s backyard.

One thing is for certain, in diversity and scale, the United States is virtually unrivaled.

But this isn’t a post about fawning over America and its landscapes ( this post is ). This article is about how you can travel around the US on a budget.

Because, as it turns out, this country is surprisingly easy to travel on the cheap.

While rising gas prices and rental car price gouging post-COVID put a damper on things, it’s still easier than you think to have a budget-friendly road trip adventure around the USA.

In this post, I’ll explain how much I spent on one of my trips, how much you should expect to spend, and how you can save money on your next road trip.

Table of Contents

How Much Did My Cross-Country Road Trip Cost?

How to save money on your road trip, how to save on accommodation, how to save on food, how to save on sightseeing, how to save on transportation.

yellowstone national park

After 116 days traveling around the United States on this trip, I spent $6,262.67 USD, or $53.98 USD per day. While that is slightly higher than $50 USD a day, there were many parts of my budget I splurged on (see breakdown below) which skewed the number up. I definitely could have visited the country even cheaper if I didn’t have an addiction to Starbucks and sushi.

Here is how the numbers from my road trip break down:

  • Accommodations: $1,036.36
  • Food: $3,258.23
  • Drinks: $438.94
  • Gas: $696.98
  • Parking: $253.00
  • Starbucks: $75.26
  • Miscellaneous (movies, toiletries, etc.): $170.00
  • Attractions: $269.40
  • Taxis: $41.00
  • Bus: $17.50
  • Subway: $6.00
  • TOTAL : $6,262.67

Let’s break this down. First, my Starbucks addiction was unnecessary and added to my costs. Second, as a lover of sushi, trying various restaurants throughout my road trip drastically raised my food costs. Sushi, after all, is not cheap.

Moreover, I ate as if I wasn’t on a budget and rarely cooked, which is why my food expenses were so high relative to everything else. I would have definitely gone below $50 USD per day if I followed my own advice and cooked more often.

But, while I splurged in some places, three other things really helped me to keep expenses down: First, gas prices were low, averaging around $2.35 USD a gallon over the duration of my trip. (We’re going to discuss how to still do a road trip on a budget with high gas prices in the next section.)

Second, once you leave the big cities, prices for everything drop by nearly half so I spent a lot of time out of cities.

Third, I used Couchsurfing and cashed in hotel points to keep accommodation costs down. That helped a lot.

Overall, I didn’t do too bad and am happy with how much I spent. But is this how much you’ll spend, especially in the face of inflation and high gas prices? Let’s discuss that below.  

hanging out in redwood national park

It’s no secret travel costs a lot lately and inflation and high gas prices have really made super cheap road trips hard if you’re not staying places for free but that doesn’t mean the road trip has to be super expensive.

With that in mind, here’s how to cut your accommodation, sightseeing, food, and transportation costs — all without cutting into your experience!  

A charming lighthouse on the coast of Maine on a bright summer day

1. Couchsurf — Couchsurfing is a service that allows you to stay with locals for free. Using this website (or similar ones) is the best way to lower accommodation costs, as you can’t get cheaper than free!

More than that, it’s a wonderful way to meet locals, get insider tips, and find off-the-beaten-track stuff to do in the area you’re visiting. While you’re generally expected to reciprocate your host’s kindness (cooking them a meal, taking them out for drinks or coffee, etc.), it’s still far cheaper than paying for a hotel or motel.

While the app has seen its community shrink in recent years, there are still plenty of hosts across the United States so you’ll rarely find problems finding someone to put you up.

Additionally, if you don’t feel comfortable staying with a stranger, you can use the app to meet people for drinks, coffee, activities, or anything else you want to do. That way, you can still meet a local and get their insider tips without having to stay with them. The app has all kinds of meet-ups and events too so be sure to check it out.

2. Airbnb — I only recommend using Airbnb in rural, out of the way places where hotels are limited. Avoid them as much as possible in other circumstances. Here is why we don’t really recommend them.

3. Budget hotels — There are a plethora of cheap roadside hotels such as Motel 6 and Super 8 that will help you stay cheap. Rooms start around $50 USD per night and are super basic and always look well worn. You’ll get a bed, bathroom, TV, tiny closet, and maybe a desk. They are nothing to write home about, but for a quiet place to sleep for a night, they do the trick.

And if you’re traveling with someone you should always say the room is for one person as these hotels charge you more for two people.

Also, make sure you sign up for Booking.com and Hotels.com loyalty programs. Hotels.com gives you a free room after 10 bookings, and Booking.com offers members 10% off bookings, as well as free upgrades and perks if you book multiple times after signing up. They definitely helped a lot.

Pro tip : Book through websites like Mr.Rebates or Rakuten . By using their links before going to Hotels.com or Booking, you’ll get 2-4% cash back in addition to the loyalty program deals.

4. Hotel points — Be sure to sign up for hotel credit cards before you go and use those points when you travel. You can get upwards of 70,000 points as a sign-up bonus, which can translate into a week’s worth of accommodations.

The points came in handy in places where I couldn’t find an Airbnb, hostel, or Couchsurfing host. This saved my butt in big cities around the country. I was glad I had accrued so many hotel points before my trip.

To learn more about, check out these posts:

  • The Best Hotel Credit Cards
  • The Ultimate Guide to Picking the Best Travel Credit Card
  • Points and Miles 101: A Beginner’s Guide
  • The Best Travel Credit Cards

5. Hostels — There aren’t many hostels in the United States, and most of them are overpriced. A dorm room typically costs around $30 a night, which means you can obtain a similar private room on Airbnb at the same price. If you are traveling with others, it’s often more economical to get a budget hotel than a bunch of dorm beds.

However, if you are traveling solo and want to meet others, the social benefits may outweigh the lack of value. There were just some times I didn’t want to be alone – I wanted to be around other travelers.

Some of the hostels I loved are:

  • Samesun Venice Beach (LA)
  • South Beach Hostel (Miami)
  • India House (New Orleans)
  • Jazz Hostels (NYC)
  • ITH Adventure Hostel (San Diego)
  • The Green Tortoise (San Francisco and Seattle).

For more hostel suggestions, here’s a list of my favorite hostels in the USA.

6. Camping — Dotted around the country — including around all the national parks — are inexpensive campsites. If you have a tent and camping gear, this is by far the cheapest way to travel. Campsites cost between $10-30 USD per night, which makes seeing the country incredibly affordable. Most campsites have basic amenities like running water, bathrooms, and the ability to upgrade to get electricity.

In addition to your standard campgrounds, check out the sharing economy website Campspace . It lets you pitch a tent on private properties all around the country for a small fee. Much like Airbnb, some plots are super basic and barebones while others are more luxurious, so be sure to poke around for a cheap place to stay as there are plots available all around the country.

It’s also legal to wild camp in national forests and on BLM land unless otherwise marked.

7. Sleep in your car — I know this isn’t glamorous but sleeping in your vehicle brings your accommodation costs down to zero. I know lots of travelers who did this to make their trip more affordable, some sleeping in their car just occasionally and others doing it every night. Chances are you won’t sleep well but you will save money, and that’s a fair trade to some people!

For those traveling in an RV, there are tons of free places to park and camp all around the country. Use iOverlander to find the best spots.  

A take out dish of shrimp on a road trip by Nomadic Matt in Hawaii

To help you keep your food costs in check, here are a few quick tips:

1. Cook your own meals as often as possible – If you can bring a cooler in your vehicle, you can pack groceries instead of eating out all the time. And if you bring some containers, you can store leftovers in the car too, allowing you to cook larger meals at dinner that you can eat the next day for lunch.

2. Stay in accommodation with a kitchen – If you want to cook, you’ll need a kitchen. Prioritize accommodation like Couchsurfing, Airbnb, and hostels as those will typically provide kitchen access so you can cook your meals.

3. Shop cheap – Avoid the pricier grocery stores like Whole Foods when it comes to getting groceries and stick to budget places like Walmart. It’s not glamorous, but it will be cheap!

4. Find cheap restaurants – When you want to eat out but don’t want to break the bank, use Yelp, ask people on websites like Couchsurfing, or inquire at the desks at hostels for suggestions. Locals have the best tips and insights when it comes to where to eat so they can point you in the right direction. Simply cook, limit your eating out, and be happy!

The famous Horseshoe Bend as seen by Nomadic Matt while on a roadtrip

1. Get a National Parks pass — For $80, you can purchase an annual National Parks and Federal Lands ‘America the Beautiful’ pass that provides access to all 63 national parks (as well as any other recreation areas administered by the National Park Service). In total, you can visit more than 2,000 federal recreation sites with the same pass. At $20-35 USD per visit, seeing five during your trip makes the pass a money saver. When you visit your first park, simply buy the pass and you’re good to go. There’s no need to order it in advance.

The U.S. national park system is amazing and really highlights the diversity of landscapes in the country. You can’t travel across the country without stopping at many of the national parks, especially as you get out west.

2. City tourism cards — City tourism cards allow you to see a large number of attractions (and often include free public transportation) for one price, usually $75-100 USD. They provide free access to museums, reduced access to attractions, and restaurant discounts. Be sure to look into them if you plan on doing a lot of sightseeing, as they generally will save you money. They can be purchased at tourism information centers or online before you go.

3. Free museums and events — Inquire at tourism centers, use Google, or ask hotel or hostel staff for information about free events and museums. Many museums offer occasional free or discounted admission throughout the week. There are always tons of free activities in any city in the United States.

4. Free walking tours and city greeter programs — Many cities in the US have free walking tours or city greeter programs that pair you with a local guide who can give you a brief tour. Whenever I visit a new city, I start my trip off with one of these tours. They show you the lay of the land, introduce you to the main sights, and give you access to an expert local guide that can answer all your questions.

Check in with the local tourism office when you arrive to see what programs and tours are available.

For greeter programs, you’ll need to sign-up in advance before your visit. It’s good to give about 2 weeks’ notice as they have to find someone to take you around. Google “(city name) greeter program” to find them as some are run independently of the city tourism board so might not be listed on their website.

A lone road in Wyoming near Grand Teton National Park and its snow-capped mountains

Here are your options when it comes to traveling across the country:

1. Hitchhike — This isn’t something I did on my trip, as I had a car, but it’s very doable (and relatively safe). Here’s a post by my friend Matt who hitchhiked across the United States explaining how to do so and come out alive (don’t worry, it’s safer than you think)..

For more hitchhiking tips, use Hitchwiki .

2. Rideshare — Taking on riders can be a way to lower your costs. On my first trip across the U.S., I offered rides to people I met in hostels. On this trip, I had friends and readers join me along the way. You can post ads on Craigslist and Gumtree and at hostels to find riders. This not only makes the trip more enjoyable but lowers your gas costs. Or if you are a rider, you can use the same services to find rides to get you places.

3. Buy a car — If you don’t have a car or don’t want to rent one, you can buy cheap used cars from car dealers or owners on Craigslist. There are lots of listings, and you can resell the car at the end of your trip to recoup some of your initial purchase cost. While this is easy in other countries, it’s hard to do in the United States, so remember a couple of key points:

  • You’ll need a US address for registration documents to get sent to. I would use a hostel or hotel address and then set up a forwarding address with the Post Office.
  • You’ll have to buy car insurance, which can greatly add to the costs of your trip.

Another option is to use a car relocation service. This is when you take someone’s car and drive it across the country. You are usually paid, and gas is covered. The downside is you don’t often have a lot of leeway on timing, so you might not have much time to stop and sightsee along the way. Car relocation options are also usually limited. Two companies worth checking out are Transfercar and Hit the Road .

If you just want to rent a car, use Discover Cars .

4. Use gas apps & membership programs – Install GasBuddy , an app that finds the cheapest gas prices near you. It is a must. If you’re going on a longer road trip, sign up for the monthly program; it costs $9.99 but will save you up to 40 cents a gallon.

Also, sign up for every gas loyalty program you can, so as to maximize points and discounts. Moreover, if you get a brand’s credit card, your first 50 gallons usually come with 30 cents off per gallon.

You should also consider getting a Costco membership for cheap gas. They have around 574 stores around the US so you’ll be able to earn the cost of a membership back by saving money on both gas and food.

5. Download parking apps – Parking costs add up — especially in cities. Use apps like BestParking and Parker to find spots and compare prices.

6. Take the bus – If driving is entirely out of the question, you can find bus tickets for as little as $1 USD from Megabus. Greyhound and Flixbus also have cheap rides all around the US. Rides under five hours are usually around $20 USD if you book early, and overnight rides usually cost $50-100. You can save big if you book in advance (often upwards of 75%!).

Don’t let the United States fool you! A road trip across the United States is a fun way to see a lot of diverse landscapes, experience different cultures, and meet interesting people. Traveling America isn’t very expensive once you are outside the big cities and you can easily travel the country on a budget by using the advice in this article.

Book Your Trip to the USA: Logistical Tips and Tricks

Book Your Flight Use Skyscanner to find a cheap flight. They are my favorite search engine because they search websites and airlines around the globe so you always know no stone is left unturned!

Book Your Accommodation You can book your hostel with Hostelworld as they have the biggest inventory and best deals. If you want to stay somewhere other than a hostel, use Booking.com as they consistently return the cheapest rates for guesthouses and cheap hotels.

Don’t Forget Travel Insurance Travel insurance will protect you against illness, injury, theft, and cancellations. It’s comprehensive protection in case anything goes wrong. I never go on a trip without it as I’ve had to use it many times in the past. My favorite companies that offer the best service and value are:

  • Safety Wing (for everyone below 70)
  • Insure My Trip (for those over 70)
  • Medjet (for additional evacuation coverage)

Looking for the Best Companies to Save Money With? Check out my resource page for the best companies to use when you travel. I list all the ones I use to save money when I’m on the road. They will save you money when you travel too.

Want More Information on the United States? Be sure to visit our robust destination guide on the US for even more planning tips!

Got a comment on this article? Join the conversation on Facebook , Instagram , or Twitter and share your thoughts!

Disclosure: Please note that some of the links above may be affiliate links, and at no additional cost to you, I earn a commission if you make a purchase. I recommend only products and companies I use and the income goes to keeping the site community supported and ad free.

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How to Calculate Cost of Travel

Last Updated: September 27, 2023

This article was co-authored by Greg Guiteras . Greg Guiteras is the CEO of Lorraine Travel, LLC, one of the largest privately-owned travel management companies in Florida founded in 1948. With over 34 years of experience, Greg's specialties are in corporate travel management, sales and marketing, contract negotiations, strategic partnerships, and luxury hotel sales. Greg holds a BS in Marketing from Florida State University. Greg has also created WhataHotel!, a website offering exclusive perks on hotel bookings, and CabinMate, an app that matches single cruise travelers with potential cabin matches "in the same boat" to avoid traveling solo on a cruise. This article has been viewed 149,613 times.

Calculating your travel costs can help you plan and organize your trip, and though it may seem difficult or confusing, it’s actually pretty easy to do. Look into the cost of lodging, vehicle rentals, fuel costs, flight costs, and any other expenses you may incur. Gather all of your costs together and keep them organized so you can plan for expenses and calculate your costs. You can also use a formula to figure out your fuel costs if you’re driving to your destination.

Calculating Your Travel Budget

Step 1 Keep track of your costs so they’re organized.

  • Use a spreadsheet to organize costs, make plans, and keep a checklist of items.
  • Write down any expenses that you make or plan to make in the document.

Step 2 Research the total cost of round trip airline tickets if you’re flying.

  • You can also estimate your budget based on other round trip ticket prices. For example, if you’re in the US, you could calculate round trip tickets across the country at around $500.
  • Look for roundtrip ticket deals that bundle your flights together.
  • Compare rates of round trip flights online so you can find the most affordable option.

Step 3 Look up the price of vehicle rentals where you’re going.

  • For example, if a rental company charges $50 a day, and you need to rent a vehicle for 3 days, then you’ll need to budget at least $150 for rental costs.
  • If you’re traveling far, choose the vehicle with the best mileage so you can save on fuel costs.

Step 4 Incorporate additional transportation you’ll use into your costs.

  • Search online to determine the type of travel you’ll use.
  • Find out the costs of using the transportation, whether it’s a rental fee or a ticket price, and estimate how much you’ll need to budget for it. For example, if you plan to take a ferry to visit a remote island at least 4 times, and the ticket prices are $5 per trip, then you can budget $20 for ferry tickets.
  • If you’re unsure of how to arrange for transportation at your destination, contact a travel agency and ask them to assist you. You’ll have to pay them for their services, but they’ll be able to fully assist you!

Step 5 Find out the costs of any lodgings you plan to use.

  • For instance, if you plan to stay at a hotel that costs $100 a night, and you plan to stay for 5 days, then you’ll need to budget $500 to stay there for the duration.
  • Calculate your total lodging costs by adding together the total amounts of each place you plan to stay.
  • You can find rental rates for many hotels on their website.

Step 6 Include the costs of food for each traveler.

  • Check to see if there are any restaurants that you plan to visit so you can adjust your food costs based on the prices of the restaurant.
  • If you plan to eat on the airplane, contact the airline to find out the cost of meals.

Tip: A good rule of thumb is to figure about $20 of food costs per person for a full day of traveling.

Step 7 Add in the costs of any activities you plan to do.

  • Try to think of any miscellaneous costs that you may have such as toll roads or baggage fees.

Budgeting Fuel Costs

Step 1 Find out the total distance you will drive on your trip.

  • Put together all of the driving trips you plan to take to get a total traveling distance.

Step 2 Divide the distance by your vehicle’s mileage to find your fuel needs.

  • For example, if you’re going to Kansas, you plan to drive a total of about 200 miles (320 km), and your rental car gets about 20 miles (32 km) per gallon of fuel, then you’ll need to purchase a total of about 10 gallons (38 L) of fuel in order to get around.

Step 3 Multiply how much fuel you need by the cost of fuel where you’re traveling.

  • For instance, if you need about 10 gallons (38 L) of fuel to travel around and the cost of fuel is about $3.00 per gallon, then you’ll need to spend about $30.00 on fuel.

Tip: If you’re traveling for business or you plan to be reimbursed for your expenses, keep your receipts so you can be reimbursed and calculate your mileage for tax purposes.

Expert Q&A

Greg Guiteras

You Might Also Like

Create a Travel Budget

  • ↑ https://www.businessinsider.com/budget-spreadsheet-advice-2018-4
  • ↑ https://familytravelsonabudget.com/budget/how-to-estimate-travel-expenses/
  • ↑ https://travel-made-simple.com/how-to-make-a-travel-budget/

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Best Road Trip Cars in 2023

Get ready to hit the road for vacations and holidays in a car that's fuel efficient, reliable and comfortable. We found the best road trip cars for any adventure.

2024 Kia Carnival

Kia Motors America |

Looking for Adventure? Head Out on the Highway!

People have a lot of pent-up travel lust after years of pandemic restrictions and uncertainty. Air travel in particular has seen a huge rise this summer, with the busiest day in the industry's history occurring in June. Rather than fight those busy flights, hit the road in a new vehicle that can fit all your luggage and maybe even help you keep your cool.

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No single car is the perfect road trip vehicle for everyone, but great road trip cars have some features in common. We looked for vehicles that have good gas mileage for fewer stops at gas stations, enough USB ports to keep everyone's devices charged up and comfortable seats in all rows. Driver assistance features are important too, as they can help reduce fatigue during long days on the road.

When new information becomes available, we update our reviews, so the information in these slides might not match the reviews exactly.

Let's take a look at the best road trip cars so we can – finally – get out of town.

2023 Hyundai Tucson Hybrid Exterior

Hyundai Motor America |

2023 Hyundai Tucson Hybrid

$31,350 | usn overall score: 8.7/10.

The 2023 Hyundai Tucson Hybrid is among the best in its class. Its long list of features was refreshed for the new model year, and it was a finalist for our Best Hybrid SUV for the Money and Best Hybrid SUV for Families awards. The regular hybrid is the best for road tripping, with up to 38 mpg on the highway. The available plug-in hybrid shines brightest when you can take full advantage of its 33 miles of electric-only power around town.

Inside, there's tons of room for adults in both rows of seating and a huge cargo area. An 8-inch touch screen, wireless Apple CarPlay , wireless Android Auto , four USB ports and wireless device charging come standard.

More on the 2023 Hyundai Tucson Hybrid

  • See 2023 Hyundai Tucson Hybrid Photos  »
  • Find the best price on the 2023 Hyundai Tucson Hybrid »
  • Read the 2023 Hyundai Tucson Hybrid Full Review  »
  • See Hybrid SUV Rankings  »

2023 Volkswagen Atlas

Volkswagen of America, Inc. |

2023 Volkswagen Atlas

$34,460 | usn overall score: 8.0/10.

The 2023 Volkswagen Atlas has enough room to bring along everybody and all their gear. It's available with two or three rows of seating, and even the optional third row has enough room for shorter adults or squirmy kids. It has more cargo space behind the third row than most in its class. A 6.5-inch touch screen and smartphone compatibility come standard.

Despite being a 3-row SUV, the Atlas is easy to maneuver, even when you leave the highway for city streets. It can also tow up to 5,000 pounds when properly configured if you plan to bring a small camper or want to tow some toys for your vacation.

More on the 2023 Volkswagen Atlas

  • See 2023 Volkswagen Atlas Photos  »
  • Find the best price on the 2023 Volkswagen Atlas »
  • Read the 2023 Volkswagen Atlas Full Review  »
  • See Midsize SUV Rankings  »

2023 Lincoln Navigator

Ford Motor Company |

2023 Lincoln Navigator

$77,635 | usn overall score: 8.8/10.

Wherever your road trip takes you, the 2023 Lincoln Navigator will make sure you arrive in comfort and style. It's one of the best luxury large SUVs, with a well-built and high-quality interior. Standard features include a 13.2-inch touch screen, wireless smartphone connectivity, a Wi-Fi hotspot and five USB ports.

Every seat in all three rows is comfortable, and the available L model adds extra space to an already roomy cargo area. And though it is large, the Navigator turns in decent fuel economy estimates for its class, with up to 23 mpg on the highway. Standard safety features like lane-keep assist can help reduce driver fatigue too.

More on the 2023 Lincoln Navigator

  • See 2023 Lincoln Navigator Photos  »
  • Find the best price on the 2023 Lincoln Navigator »
  • Read the 2023 Lincoln Navigator Full Review  »
  • See Luxury Large SUV Rankings  »

2023 Chevrolet Suburban

General Motors |

2023 Chevrolet Suburban

$57,200 | overall score: 8.2/10.

The 2023 Chevrolet Suburban is the classic family road trip SUV. It's huge, with more cargo space than almost any SUV out there. It can be configured to seat up to nine people (though it's a tight fit). With seven or eight seats, even the third row provides enough legroom for adults. The interior is sturdy enough for epic journeys, and it comes with an 8-inch touch screen, wireless smartphone connectivity and six USB ports.

Depending on how you configure it, the Suburban can tow up to 8,300 pounds, enough for the average camper. It also comes with driver-assistance features like lane-departure warning, lane-keep assist and automatic emergency braking.

More on the 2023 Chevrolet Suburban

  • See 2023 Chevrolet Suburban Photos  »
  • Find the best price on the 2023 Chevrolet Suburban »
  • Read the 2023 Chevrolet Suburban Full Review  »
  • See Large SUV Rankings  »

2023 Genesis G90

2023 Genesis G90

$88,400 | usn overall score: 9.3/10.

The 2023 Genesis G90 was completely redesigned this year, and it added an optional mild-hybrid powertrain that improves acceleration when passing on the highway. The available air suspension makes long drives a dream, and the long list of standard safety features-including adaptive cruise control-eases the tedium of driving.

The Nappa leather interior wraps the road tripper in luxury, and both rows of seating are comfortable for adults. The trunk is large enough for several suitcases, and it opens automatically as you approach. The G90 also has one of the longest warranties in the business.

More on the 2023 Genesis G90

  • See 2023 Genesis G90 Photos  »
  • Find the best price on the 2023 Genesis G90 »
  • Read the 2023 Genesis G90 Full Review  »
  • See Luxury Large Car Rankings  »

2023 Toyota rav4 hybrid

Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A., Inc. |

2023 Toyota RAV4 Hybrid

$30,725 | usn overall score: 8.2/10.

The 2023 Toyota RAV4 Hybrid takes everything that has made this compact SUV popular over the years, like a comfortable ride and plenty of standard high-tech features, and added a fuel-efficient and quick-accelerating hybrid powertrain. It can get up to 41 mpg on the highway, which helps cut road trip costs. It was also a finalist for our Best Hybrid SUV for the Money award.

The interior is solidly built, and both rows of seating are comfy. There's also great visibility for everyone, so games of "I Spy" may get competitive. An 8-inch touch screen, wireless smartphone compatibility and a Wi-Fi hotspot come standard. Adaptive cruise control and traffic-sign recognition (both standard) help you when driving in unfamiliar locations.

More on the 2023 Toyota RAV4 Hybrid

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2024 Honda CR-V Hybrid

American Honda Motor Co., Inc. |

2023 Honda CR-V Hybrid

$32,950 | usn overall score: 8.3/10.

The 2023 Honda CR-V Hybrid is a more fuel-efficient version of the popular compact SUV, with up to 43 mpg on the highway. It's been completely redesigned this year, with more standard tech features and an improved infotainment system. A 7-inch touch screen, smartphone connectivity, a Wi-Fi hotspot and four USB ports come standard.

The seats are comfy in both rows, with room for adults to stretch out even on road trips. The rear seats recline, so whoever is off driving duty can take a nap. Standard adaptive cruise control and lane-keep assist help reduce the fatigue that can come with hours of driving.

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2023 Kia Carnival Exterior

2024 Kia Carnival

$33,200 | overall score: 8.5/10.

The 2024 Kia Carnival basically begs you to get the show on the road, and it comes standard with several advanced safety features, including driver-attention monitoring.

The interior is upholstered with easy-to-clean materials, and all three rows have enough room for adults, though the third row is short on headroom. It also has lots of cargo space, even with all three rows in use. An 8-inch touch screen, smartphone compatibility and seven USB ports come standard.

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  • See Minivan Rankings  »

2023 Chrysler Pacifica Hybrid

Stellantis |

2023 Chrysler Pacifica Hybrid

$50,795 | usn overall score: 8.6/10.

The 2023 Chrysler Pacific Hybrid is a plug-in hybrid, so when you reach your destination and charge up, you can drive about 32 miles on electric power alone. Under electric power, this Chrysler gets 82 MPG-equivalent, and gasoline-only driving returns up to 30 mpg on the highway. These are great numbers for a minivan.

There's also a ton of tech included, like a 10.1-inch touch screen, wireless smartphone connectivity and Amazon Alexa compatibility. All three rows of seating have lots of head- and legroom, and there's plenty of storage space. Standard safety features include adaptive cruise control and a surround-view parking camera system.

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  • Read the 2023 Chrysler Pacifica Hybrid Full Review  »

2023 Ram 1500

2023 Ram 1500

$31,270 | usn overall score: 9.0/10.

If your road trip plan involves a camper or boat, you'll want to look into the 2023 Ram 1500 . When properly equipped, it can tow up to 12,750 pounds. As with most pickups, you can configure the 1500 in whatever way works for you.

There are a lot of options and body styles to choose from too, but they all have a spacious, high-quality interior. The availability of safety features and infotainment tech depends on the trim you choose and the options you select, so you can custom-build the road-tripping pickup of your dreams – or the one that fits your budget.

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  • See 2023 Ram 1500 Photos  »
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  • Read the 2023 Ram 1500 Full Review  »
  • See Full Size Pickup Truck Rankings  »

2023 Honda Civic Hatchback Exterior

2023 Honda Civic

$23,750 | usn overall score: 8.7/10.

Your road-trip car is probably also your go-to-work-every-day car. The 2023 Honda Civic ably handles both roles. It's one of the best compact cars in its class, and we named it the Best Compact Car for the Money as well as one of the Best Cars for Teens . All of its scores are high, especially when it comes to safety. The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety gave it the Top Safety Pick+ designation.

It's not just safe, it's also thrifty, with up to 42 mpg on the highway. A 7-inch touch screen and smartphone connectivity come standard. It also comes with adaptive cruise control and traffic-sign recognition, which make driving in unfamiliar areas a bit easier.

More on the 2023 Honda Civic

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  • See Compact Car Rankings  »

2023 Ford Mustang GT

2023 Ford Mustang

$27,770 | usn overall score: 9.2/10.

Sometimes you want to live the American road trip dream in an impractical sports car. But guess what – the 2023 Ford Mustang is a rather practical sports car with one of the highest overall U.S. News scores. There are several available engines, but sticking with the base turbo-four means an estimated 32 mpg on the highway.

Living the American muscle car fantasy on the open road is best for two people, since the Mustang's rear seats are pretty small. Its standard infotainment system has a 4.2-inch display – not a touch screen – and a Wi-Fi hot spot. Standard safety tech includes automatic emergency braking and lane-keep assist. But maybe most importantly, for purposes of the dream, the Mustang is available as a convertible.

More on the 2023 Ford Mustang

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  • Read the 2023 Ford Mustang Full Review  »
  • See Sports Car Rankings  »

2023 Kia Carnival Interior

Road Trip Car Characteristics

Passenger space : People turn cranky when they aren't comfortable after hours on the road. There needs to be space for everyone to stretch out.

Cargo space : At the very minimum, you'll be bringing luggage along and maybe also camping gear or tubes for floating the river. Make sure there's space for your gear.

Fuel economy : Stopping for gas on a road trip can get expensive. Fuel efficiency, particularly from hybrid powertrains, can ease the pain of stopping at the pump.

Infotainment : An AM/FM radio is no longer sufficient for most people. An infotainment system that's easy to use while driving and can connect to smartphones is key.

Safety tech : Driving long distances causes fatigue, and fatigue causes accidents. Modern driver-assistance features can help you stay alert and in your lane.

Reliability : No one wants to be the car in the breakdown lane while on their road trip. A good predicted reliability score shows that a particular model has on average been a solid performer over time.

2023 Genesis G90

John M. Vincent | U.S. News & World Report

Road Trip Car FAQs

What is the best car for road trips.

The best car for road trips is the one that fits your budget and your needs, so there's no one vehicle that will work for everybody. That said, the 2023 Honda Civic is a strong pick. It provides comfort, features, safety and reliability, and all for one of the lowest price tags on this list.

What is the best SUV for road trips?

The 2023 Hyundai Tucson Hybrid combines a long list of standard features with great fuel economy, and it has one of the most spacious interiors in its class.

What is the best luxury car for road trips?

The redesigned 2023 Genesis G90 will take you anywhere in comfort and style. Most of its best features are standard, including leather upholstery.

What is the most comfortable car for long trips?

On a list of very comfortable vehicles, the 2023 Honda CR-V Hybrid is probably the most comfortable, especially for back-seat passengers who can take advantage of those reclining seats. If comfort is your priority, take a look at our list of most comfortable cars for more options.

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More Shopping Tools From U.S. News & World Report

Plenty of families take road trips, so you might want to check out the winners of our 2023 Best Cars for Families awards too. Maybe you've been left stranded on an unfamiliar road by your former car and are looking for the most reliable cars available. If you know you need to bring along a lot of gear, see our roundup of compact SUVs with the most cargo space .

When you're ready to buy a new car, use our Best Price Program to pre-negotiate a great price with a local dealership. You can arrange for online buying and even vehicle delivery through the program.

U.S. News Best Cars Badge

U.S. News & World Report |

Best Cars for Road Trips

  • 2023 Hyundai Tucson Hybrid - $31,350 | Overall Score: 8.7/10
  • 2023 Volkswagen Atlas - $34,460 | Overall Score: 8.0/10
  • 2023 Lincoln Navigator - $77,635| Overall Score: 8.8/10
  • 2023 Chevrolet Suburban - $57,200 | Overall Score: 8.2/10
  • 2023 Genesis G90 - $88,400 | Overall Score: 9.3/10
  • 2023 Toyota RAV4 Hybrid - $31,225 | Overall Score: 8.2/10
  • 2023 Honda CR-V Hybrid - $32,950 | Overall Score: 8.3/10
  • 2024 Kia Carnival - $33,200 | Overall Score: 8.5/10
  • 2023 Chrysler Pacifica Hybrid - $50,795 | Overall Score: 8.6/10
  • 2023 Ram 1500 - $31,270 | Overall Score: 9.0/10
  • 2023 Honda Civic - $23,750 | Overall Score: 8.7/10
  • 2023 Ford Mustang - $27,770 | Overall Score: 9.2/10

Browse Cars

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With rising flight prices, you may be wondering: is it worth booking the ticket, or should I just drive? We're here to help you figure out what you might save (or spend) if you decide to load up the car and hit the road - or if taking to the skies is really the more affordable option.

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Travel Inflation Report: April 2024

Sam Kemmis

Many or all of the products featured here are from our partners who compensate us. This influences which products we write about and where and how the product appears on a page. However, this does not influence our evaluations. Our opinions are our own. Here is a list of our partners and here's how we make money .

Table of Contents

How airfares have changed

How hotels room rates have changed, how rental car prices have changed, how restaurant prices have changed, how the price of movies, theaters and concerts has changed, if you’re planning to travel in 2024….

Some good news for travelers: Airfares are a lot cheaper than they were this time last year.

Last month, airfares were down 7.1% versus the same month in 2023. And despite the overall cost of goods increasing 22.8% since the onset of the pandemic, airfares are only up a marginal 2.6%. That’s according to the latest set of Consumer Price Index data released in April 2024 from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, which is based on March 2024 prices.

Car rentals price are also lower — down 8.8% versus March 2023. Hotel prices decreased too, down 2.4% since last year.

Falling travel prices is a bright spot for customers, considering that the price of pretty much everything else is going up. In fact, average consumer prices across all items rose 3.5% year-over-year through March.

According to NerdWallet's Travel Price Index, the overall cost of travel is down 2% from the same month in 2023 and up 15% compared with March 2019 (the last fully-normal March before lockdowns). In short, expect the same trip taken this year to cost slightly less than it did this time last year, but more than it would if you had taken the trip before the pandemic.

NerdWallet's Travel Price Index combines data from individual travel categories tracked by the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Consumer Price Index data, such as airfares, lodging, meals and rental cars.

Overall prices for the past 12 months through March 2024 rose 3.5% before seasonal adjustment. Still, not every individual line item experiences inflation at the same rate — especially when it comes to travel prices. Some types of trips might actually be more or less expensive than in the past, depending on if your trip involves airfare versus driving, if you’re staying in a hotel and whether it involves a rental car.

To help you better understand how travel prices have changed, NerdWallet honed in on five categories:

Car rentals.

Food away from home.

Movies, theaters and concerts.

NerdWallet then compared those costs to their same prices a month ago and a year ago. And given how significantly COVID-19 altered the state of travel, the data also compares today’s prices to the same cost of those things pre-pandemic. For example, March 2024 is compared to March 2019 as the last corresponding pre-pandemic month.

Here’s what today’s travel prices look like:

When comparing March 2024 prices versus March 2023, U.S. airfares are down 7.1%. Even compared to pre-pandemic prices, airfares only rose by 2.6% in March 2024 versus March 2019. That's not a lot considering average prices as a whole are up by 22.8% since March 2019.

Prices for lodging away from home — including hotels and motels in U.S. cities — did increase 6.7% month-over-month. Though, they actually decreased over the past year, falling by 2.4% versus March 2023.

Unlike airfares that are lower than pre-pandemic prices, hotel and motel prices are significantly higher than what they were pre-pandemic — though still not as high as the 22.8% all-items average increase.

High rental car prices were one of the biggest stories of pandemic-era travel. Though prices have leveled off, they are still up an astounding 39.3% versus the same month in 2019. Still, the costs are better now than they were a year ago. Car rental prices are down 8.8% year-over-year.

Food prices consistently rise nearly every month, and this month was no exception. In March 2024, the cost of food away from home was up 4.2% versus the same month in 2023.

And prices are far higher than pre-pandemic, with March 2024 prices coming in at 29.3% higher than what they were in March 2019. That's higher than the inflation rate across all items, suggesting that restaurant prices have risen more than many other categories of goods.

Like restaurants, entertainment prices see fairly consistent increases — save for a small dip in 2020. Prices are now up 22.6% from what they were in March 2019. The year-over-year price increases are up 5%.

Especially if you’re building your next vacation budget based on an early-pandemic-era trip, expect to pay far more now for pretty much every expense. Yet even though prices constantly feel like they’re getting higher, you can still save on travel with a little planning.

Paying for travel with miles and points versus cash isn’t as daunting a task as it may seem. Frequent flyer miles and hotel points can be accrued not just for recurring travel, but through other outlets as well. Credit card rewards and welcome bonuses can be one of the most popular ways to accrue a big stash of points for a lot less effort than living your life out of a suitcase.

To avoid the costs of eating out, head to local grocery stores — which can be a fun activity on its own — or pack snacks from home. While in an airport, head to the lounge. Many credit cards have partnerships with airport lounge operators ( Priority Pass is a popular one) where you can typically expect complimentary snacks and drinks.

Methodology

NerdWallet conducted an analysis of the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Consumer Price Index data released by the U.S. Department of Labor, which was most recently updated in April 2024 and measures prices of items like travel, groceries and cars. Prices usually change every month, but some prices change more than others.

Keep in mind, this data is based on March 2024 information, even though it is released in April 2024, so prices you actually see may have actually improved (or gotten even worse) than this data, because it lags one month behind.

And even within the realm of travel, some expenses might go up, while others might go down.

The NerdWallet Travel Price Index combines data from the Consumer Price Index, weighted by the estimated spending in each category, which is based on 2019 travel expenditure data from the BLS.

Here are the spending categories considered, and how heavily each was weighted:

Flights: 29%.

Car rental: 13%.

Lodging: 30%.

Entertainment: 7%.

How to maximize your rewards

You want a travel credit card that prioritizes what’s important to you. Here are our picks for the best travel credit cards of 2024 , including those best for:

Flexibility, point transfers and a large bonus: Chase Sapphire Preferred® Card

No annual fee: Bank of America® Travel Rewards credit card

Flat-rate travel rewards: Capital One Venture Rewards Credit Card

Bonus travel rewards and high-end perks: Chase Sapphire Reserve®

Luxury perks: The Platinum Card® from American Express

Business travelers: Ink Business Preferred® Credit Card

Chase Sapphire Preferred Credit Card

on Chase's website

1x-5x 5x on travel purchased through Chase Travel℠, 3x on dining, select streaming services and online groceries, 2x on all other travel purchases, 1x on all other purchases.

60,000 Earn 60,000 bonus points after you spend $4,000 on purchases in the first 3 months from account opening. That's $750 when you redeem through Chase Travel℠.

Chase Freedom Unlimited Credit Card

1.5%-6.5% Enjoy 6.5% cash back on travel purchased through Chase Travel; 4.5% cash back on drugstore purchases and dining at restaurants, including takeout and eligible delivery service, and 3% on all other purchases (on up to $20,000 spent in the first year). After your first year or $20,000 spent, enjoy 5% cash back on travel purchased through Chase Travel, 3% cash back on drugstore purchases and dining at restaurants, including takeout and eligible delivery service, and unlimited 1.5% cash back on all other purchases.

$300 Earn an additional 1.5% cash back on everything you buy (on up to $20,000 spent in the first year) - worth up to $300 cash back!

Capital One Venture Rewards Credit Card

on Capital One's website

2x-5x Earn unlimited 2X miles on every purchase, every day. Earn 5X miles on hotels and rental cars booked through Capital One Travel, where you'll get Capital One's best prices on thousands of trip options.

75,000 Enjoy a one-time bonus of 75,000 miles once you spend $4,000 on purchases within 3 months from account opening, equal to $750 in travel.

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Non-entertainment-related meal expenses.

“Hours of service” limits.

Reimbursements.

Allocating your reimbursement.

After you complete the form.

Limits on employee business expenses.

1. Limit on meals and entertainment.

2. Limit on total itemized deductions.

Member of a reserve component.

Officials Paid on a Fee Basis

Special rules for married persons.

Where to report.

Impairment-Related Work Expenses of Disabled Employees

Preparing and filing your tax return.

Free options for tax preparation.

Using online tools to help prepare your return.

Need someone to prepare your tax return?

Employers can register to use Business Services Online.

IRS social media.

Watching IRS videos.

Online tax information in other languages.

Free Over-the-Phone Interpreter (OPI) Service.

Accessibility Helpline available for taxpayers with disabilities.

Getting tax forms and publications.

Getting tax publications and instructions in eBook format.

Access your online account (individual taxpayers only).

Get a transcript of your return.

Tax Pro Account.

Using direct deposit.

Reporting and resolving your tax-related identity theft issues.

Ways to check on the status of your refund.

Making a tax payment.

What if I can’t pay now?

Filing an amended return.

Checking the status of your amended return.

Understanding an IRS notice or letter you’ve received.

Responding to an IRS notice or letter.

Contacting your local TAC.

What Is TAS?

How can you learn about your taxpayer rights, what can tas do for you, how can you reach tas, how else does tas help taxpayers, low income taxpayer clinics (litcs), appendix a-1. inclusion amounts for passenger automobiles first leased in 2018, appendix a-2. inclusion amounts for passenger automobiles first leased in 2019, appendix a-3. inclusion amounts for passenger automobiles first leased in 2020, appendix a-4. inclusion amounts for passenger automobiles first leased in 2021, appendix a-5. inclusion amounts for passenger automobiles first leased in 2022, appendix a-6. inclusion amounts for passenger automobiles first leased in 2023, publication 463 - additional material, publication 463 (2023), travel, gift, and car expenses.

For use in preparing 2023 Returns

Publication 463 - Introductory Material

For the latest information about developments related to Pub. 463, such as legislation enacted after it was published, go to IRS.gov/Pub463 .

Standard mileage rate. For 2023, the standard mileage rate for the cost of operating your car for business use is 65.5 cents ($0.655) per mile. Car expenses and use of the standard mileage rate are explained in chapter 4.

Depreciation limits on cars, trucks, and vans. The first-year limit on the depreciation deduction, special depreciation allowance, and section 179 deduction for vehicles acquired before September 28, 2017, and placed in service during 2023, is $12,200. The first-year limit on depreciation, special depreciation allowance, and section 179 deduction for vehicles acquired after September 27, 2017, and placed in service during 2023 increases to $20,200. If you elect not to claim a special depreciation allowance for a vehicle placed in service in 2023, the amount increases to $12,200. Depreciation limits are explained in chapter 4.

Section 179 deduction. The maximum amount you can elect to deduct for section 179 property (including cars, trucks, and vans) you placed in service in tax years beginning in 2023 is $1,160,000. This limit is reduced by the amount by which the cost of section 179 property placed in service during the tax year exceeds $2,890,000. Section 179 deduction is explained in chapter 4.Also, the maximum section 179 expense deduction for sport utility vehicles placed in service in tax years beginning in 2023 is $28,900.

Temporary deduction of 100% business meals. The 100% deduction on certain business meals expenses as amended under the Taxpayer Certainty and Disaster Tax Relief Act of 2020, and enacted by the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021, has expired. Generally, the cost of business meals remains deductible, subject to the 50% limitation. See 50% Limit in chapter 2 for more information.

Photographs of missing children. The IRS is a proud partner with the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children® (NCMEC) . Photographs of missing children selected by the Center may appear in this publication on pages that would otherwise be blank. You can help bring these children home by looking at the photographs and calling 800-THE-LOST (800-843-5678) if you recognize a child.

Per diem rates. Current and prior per diem rates may be found on the U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) website at GSA.gov/travel/plan-book/per-diem-rates .

Introduction

You may be able to deduct the ordinary and necessary business-related expenses you have for:

Non-entertainment-related meals,

Transportation.

This publication explains:

What expenses are deductible,

How to report them on your return,

What records you need to prove your expenses, and

How to treat any expense reimbursements you may receive.

You should read this publication if you are an employee or a sole proprietor who has business-related travel, non-entertainment-related meals, gift, or transportation expenses.

If an employer-provided vehicle was available for your use, you received a fringe benefit. Generally, your employer must include the value of the use or availability of the vehicle in your income. However, there are exceptions if the use of the vehicle qualifies as a working condition fringe benefit (such as the use of a qualified nonpersonal use vehicle).

A working condition fringe benefit is any property or service provided to you by your employer, the cost of which would be allowable as an employee business expense deduction if you had paid for it.

A qualified nonpersonal use vehicle is one that isn’t likely to be used more than minimally for personal purposes because of its design. See Qualified nonpersonal use vehicles under Actual Car Expenses in chapter 4.

For information on how to report your car expenses that your employer didn’t provide or reimburse you for (such as when you pay for gas and maintenance for a car your employer provides), see Vehicle Provided by Your Employer in chapter 6.

Partnerships, corporations, trusts, and employers who reimburse their employees for business expenses should refer to the instructions for their required tax forms, for information on deducting travel, meals, and entertainment expenses.

If you are an employee, you won’t need to read this publication if all of the following are true.

You fully accounted to your employer for your work-related expenses.

You received full reimbursement for your expenses.

Your employer required you to return any excess reimbursement and you did so.

There is no amount shown with a code L in box 12 of your Form W-2, Wage and Tax Statement.

If you perform services as a volunteer worker for a qualified charity, you may be able to deduct some of your costs as a charitable contribution. See Out-of-Pocket Expenses in Giving Services in Pub. 526, Charitable Contributions, for information on the expenses you can deduct.

We welcome your comments about this publication and suggestions for future editions.

You can send us comments through IRS.gov/FormComments . Or, you can write to the Internal Revenue Service, Tax Forms and Publications, 1111 Constitution Ave. NW, IR-6526, Washington, DC 20224.

Although we can’t respond individually to each comment received, we do appreciate your feedback and will consider your comments and suggestions as we revise our tax forms, instructions, and publications. Don’t send tax questions, tax returns, or payments to the above address.

If you have a tax question not answered by this publication or the How To Get Tax Help section at the end of this publication, go to the IRS Interactive Tax Assistant page at IRS.gov/Help/ITA where you can find topics by using the search feature or viewing the categories listed.

Go to IRS.gov/Forms to download current and prior-year forms, instructions, and publications.

Go to IRS.gov/OrderForms to order current forms, instructions, and publications; call 800-829-3676 to order prior-year forms and instructions. The IRS will process your order for forms and publications as soon as possible. Don’t resubmit requests you’ve already sent us. You can get forms and publications faster online.

Useful Items

Publication

946 How To Depreciate Property

Form (and Instructions)

Schedule A (Form 1040) Itemized Deductions

Schedule C (Form 1040) Profit or Loss From Business (Sole Proprietorship)

Schedule F (Form 1040) Profit or Loss From Farming

2106 Employee Business Expenses

4562 Depreciation and Amortization (Including Information on Listed Property)

See How To Get Tax Help for information about getting these publications and forms.

If you temporarily travel away from your tax home, you can use this chapter to determine if you have deductible travel expenses.

This chapter discusses:

Traveling away from home,

Temporary assignment or job, and

What travel expenses are deductible.

For tax purposes, travel expenses are the ordinary and necessary expenses of traveling away from home for your business, profession, or job.

An ordinary expense is one that is common and accepted in your trade or business. A necessary expense is one that is helpful and appropriate for your business. An expense doesn’t have to be required to be considered necessary.

You will find examples of deductible travel expenses in Table 1-1 .

Traveling Away From Home

You are traveling away from home if:

Your duties require you to be away from the general area of your tax home (defined later) substantially longer than an ordinary day's work, and

You need to sleep or rest to meet the demands of your work while away from home.

You are a railroad conductor. You leave your home terminal on a regularly scheduled round-trip run between two cities and return home 16 hours later. During the run, you have 6 hours off at your turnaround point where you eat two meals and rent a hotel room to get necessary sleep before starting the return trip. You are considered to be away from home.

You are a truck driver. You leave your terminal and return to it later the same day. You get an hour off at your turnaround point to eat. Because you aren’t off to get necessary sleep and the brief time off isn’t an adequate rest period, you aren’t traveling away from home.

If you are a member of the U.S. Armed Forces on a permanent duty assignment overseas, you aren’t traveling away from home. You can’t deduct your expenses for meals and lodging. You can’t deduct these expenses even if you have to maintain a home in the United States for your family members who aren’t allowed to accompany you overseas. If you are transferred from one permanent duty station to another, you may have deductible moving expenses, which are explained in Pub. 3, Armed Forces' Tax Guide.

A naval officer assigned to permanent duty aboard a ship that has regular eating and living facilities has a tax home (explained next) aboard the ship for travel expense purposes.

To determine whether you are traveling away from home, you must first determine the location of your tax home.

Generally, your tax home is your regular place of business or post of duty, regardless of where you maintain your family home. It includes the entire city or general area in which your business or work is located.

If you have more than one regular place of business, your tax home is your main place of business. See Main place of business or work , later.

If you don’t have a regular or a main place of business because of the nature of your work, then your tax home may be the place where you regularly live. See No main place of business or work , later.

If you don’t have a regular or main place of business or post of duty and there is no place where you regularly live, you are considered an itinerant (a transient) and your tax home is wherever you work. As an itinerant, you can’t claim a travel expense deduction because you are never considered to be traveling away from home.

If you have more than one place of work, consider the following when determining which one is your main place of business or work.

The total time you ordinarily spend in each place.

The level of your business activity in each place.

Whether your income from each place is significant or insignificant.

You live in Cincinnati where you have a seasonal job for 8 months each year and earn $40,000. You work the other 4 months in Miami, also at a seasonal job, and earn $15,000. Cincinnati is your main place of work because you spend most of your time there and earn most of your income there.

You may have a tax home even if you don’t have a regular or main place of work. Your tax home may be the home where you regularly live.

If you don’t have a regular or main place of business or work, use the following three factors to determine where your tax home is.

You perform part of your business in the area of your main home and use that home for lodging while doing business in the area.

You have living expenses at your main home that you duplicate because your business requires you to be away from that home.

You haven’t abandoned the area in which both your historical place of lodging and your claimed main home are located; you have a member or members of your family living at your main home; or you often use that home for lodging.

If you satisfy all three factors, your tax home is the home where you regularly live. If you satisfy only two factors, you may have a tax home depending on all the facts and circumstances. If you satisfy only one factor, you are an itinerant; your tax home is wherever you work and you can’t deduct travel expenses.

You are single and live in Boston in an apartment you rent. You have worked for your employer in Boston for a number of years. Your employer enrolls you in a 12-month executive training program. You don’t expect to return to work in Boston after you complete your training.

During your training, you don’t do any work in Boston. Instead, you receive classroom and on-the-job training throughout the United States. You keep your apartment in Boston and return to it frequently. You use your apartment to conduct your personal business. You also keep up your community contacts in Boston. When you complete your training, you are transferred to Los Angeles.

You don’t satisfy factor (1) because you didn’t work in Boston. You satisfy factor (2) because you had duplicate living expenses. You also satisfy factor (3) because you didn’t abandon your apartment in Boston as your main home, you kept your community contacts, and you frequently returned to live in your apartment. Therefore, you have a tax home in Boston.

You are an outside salesperson with a sales territory covering several states. Your employer's main office is in Newark, but you don’t conduct any business there. Your work assignments are temporary, and you have no way of knowing where your future assignments will be located. You have a room in your married sister's house in Dayton. You stay there for one or two weekends a year, but you do no work in the area. You don’t pay your sister for the use of the room.

You don’t satisfy any of the three factors listed earlier. You are an itinerant and have no tax home.

If you (and your family) don’t live at your tax home (defined earlier), you can’t deduct the cost of traveling between your tax home and your family home. You also can’t deduct the cost of meals and lodging while at your tax home. See Example 1 , later.

If you are working temporarily in the same city where you and your family live, you may be considered as traveling away from home. See Example 2 , later.

You are a truck driver and you and your family live in Tucson. You are employed by a trucking firm that has its terminal in Phoenix. At the end of your long runs, you return to your home terminal in Phoenix and spend one night there before returning home. You can’t deduct any expenses you have for meals and lodging in Phoenix or the cost of traveling from Phoenix to Tucson. This is because Phoenix is your tax home.

Your family home is in Pittsburgh, where you work 12 weeks a year. The rest of the year you work for the same employer in Baltimore. In Baltimore, you eat in restaurants and sleep in a rooming house. Your salary is the same whether you are in Pittsburgh or Baltimore.

Because you spend most of your working time and earn most of your salary in Baltimore, that city is your tax home. You can’t deduct any expenses you have for meals and lodging there. However, when you return to work in Pittsburgh, you are away from your tax home even though you stay at your family home. You can deduct the cost of your round trip between Baltimore and Pittsburgh. You can also deduct your part of your family's living expenses for non-entertainment-related meals and lodging while you are living and working in Pittsburgh.

Temporary Assignment or Job

You may regularly work at your tax home and also work at another location. It may not be practical to return to your tax home from this other location at the end of each workday.

If your assignment or job away from your main place of work is temporary, your tax home doesn’t change. You are considered to be away from home for the whole period you are away from your main place of work. You can deduct your travel expenses if they otherwise qualify for deduction. Generally, a temporary assignment in a single location is one that is realistically expected to last (and does in fact last) for 1 year or less.

However, if your assignment or job is indefinite, the location of the assignment or job becomes your new tax home and you can’t deduct your travel expenses while there. An assignment or job in a single location is considered indefinite if it is realistically expected to last for more than 1 year, whether or not it actually lasts for more than 1 year.

If your assignment is indefinite, you must include in your income any amounts you receive from your employer for living expenses, even if they are called “travel allowances” and you account to your employer for them. You may be able to deduct the cost of relocating to your new tax home as a moving expense. See Pub. 3 for more information.

If you are a federal employee participating in a federal crime investigation or prosecution, you aren’t subject to the 1-year rule. This means you may be able to deduct travel expenses even if you are away from your tax home for more than 1 year provided you meet the other requirements for deductibility.

For you to qualify, the Attorney General (or their designee) must certify that you are traveling:

For the federal government;

In a temporary duty status; and

To investigate, prosecute, or provide support services for the investigation or prosecution of a federal crime.

You must determine whether your assignment is temporary or indefinite when you start work. If you expect an assignment or job to last for 1 year or less, it is temporary unless there are facts and circumstances that indicate otherwise. An assignment or job that is initially temporary may become indefinite due to changed circumstances. A series of assignments to the same location, all for short periods but that together cover a long period, may be considered an indefinite assignment.

The following examples illustrate whether an assignment or job is temporary or indefinite.

You are a construction worker. You live and regularly work in Los Angeles. You are a member of a trade union in Los Angeles that helps you get work in the Los Angeles area. Your tax home is Los Angeles. Because of a shortage of work, you took a job on a construction project in Fresno. Your job was scheduled to end in 8 months. The job actually lasted 10 months.

You realistically expected the job in Fresno to last 8 months. The job actually did last less than 1 year. The job is temporary and your tax home is still in Los Angeles.

The facts are the same as in Example 1 , except that you realistically expected the work in Fresno to last 18 months. The job was actually completed in 10 months.

Your job in Fresno is indefinite because you realistically expected the work to last longer than 1 year, even though it actually lasted less than 1 year. You can’t deduct any travel expenses you had in Fresno because Fresno became your tax home.

The facts are the same as in Example 1 , except that you realistically expected the work in Fresno to last 9 months. After 8 months, however, you were asked to remain for 7 more months (for a total actual stay of 15 months).

Initially, you realistically expected the job in Fresno to last for only 9 months. However, due to changed circumstances occurring after 8 months, it was no longer realistic for you to expect that the job in Fresno would last for 1 year or less. You can deduct only your travel expenses for the first 8 months. You can’t deduct any travel expenses you had after that time because Fresno became your tax home when the job became indefinite.

If you go back to your tax home from a temporary assignment on your days off, you aren’t considered away from home while you are in your hometown. You can’t deduct the cost of your meals and lodging there. However, you can deduct your travel expenses, including meals and lodging, while traveling between your temporary place of work and your tax home. You can claim these expenses up to the amount it would have cost you to stay at your temporary place of work.

If you keep your hotel room during your visit home, you can deduct the cost of your hotel room. In addition, you can deduct your expenses of returning home up to the amount you would have spent for meals had you stayed at your temporary place of work.

If you take a job that requires you to move, with the understanding that you will keep the job if your work is satisfactory during a probationary period, the job is indefinite. You can’t deduct any of your expenses for meals and lodging during the probationary period.

What Travel Expenses Are Deductible?

Once you have determined that you are traveling away from your tax home, you can determine what travel expenses are deductible.

You can deduct ordinary and necessary expenses you have when you travel away from home on business. The type of expense you can deduct depends on the facts and your circumstances.

Table 1-1 summarizes travel expenses you may be able to deduct. You may have other deductible travel expenses that aren’t covered there, depending on the facts and your circumstances.

If you have one expense that includes the costs of non-entertainment-related meals, entertainment, and other services (such as lodging or transportation), you must allocate that expense between the cost of non-entertainment-related meals, and entertainment and the cost of other services. You must have a reasonable basis for making this allocation. For example, you must allocate your expenses if a hotel includes one or more meals in its room charge.

If a spouse, dependent, or other individual goes with you (or your employee) on a business trip or to a business convention, you generally can’t deduct their travel expenses.

You can deduct the travel expenses of someone who goes with you if that person:

Is your employee,

Has a bona fide business purpose for the travel, and

Would otherwise be allowed to deduct the travel expenses.

If a business associate travels with you and meets the conditions in (2) and (3) above, you can deduct the travel expenses you have for that person. A business associate is someone with whom you could reasonably expect to actively conduct business. A business associate can be a current or prospective (likely to become) customer, client, supplier, employee, agent, partner, or professional advisor.

Table 1-1. Travel Expenses You Can Deduct

A bona fide business purpose exists if you can prove a real business purpose for the individual's presence. Incidental services, such as typing notes or assisting in entertaining customers, aren’t enough to make the expenses deductible.

You drive to Chicago on business and take your spouse with you. Your spouse isn’t your employee. Your spouse occasionally types notes, performs similar services, and accompanies you to luncheons and dinners. The performance of these services doesn’t establish that your spouse’s presence on the trip is necessary to the conduct of your business. Your spouse’s expenses aren’t deductible.

You pay $199 a day for a double room. A single room costs $149 a day. You can deduct the total cost of driving your car to and from Chicago, but only $149 a day for your hotel room. If both you and your spouse use public transportation, you can only deduct your fare.

You can deduct a portion of the cost of meals if it is necessary for you to stop for substantial sleep or rest to properly perform your duties while traveling away from home on business. Meal and entertainment expenses are discussed in chapter 2 .

You can't deduct expenses for meals that are lavish or extravagant. An expense isn't considered lavish or extravagant if it is reasonable based on the facts and circumstances. Meal expenses won't be disallowed merely because they are more than a fixed dollar amount or because the meals take place at deluxe restaurants, hotels, or resorts.

You can figure your meal expenses using either of the following methods.

Actual cost.

If you are reimbursed for the cost of your meals, how you apply the 50% limit depends on whether your employer's reimbursement plan was accountable or nonaccountable. If you aren’t reimbursed, the 50% limit applies even if the unreimbursed meal expense is for business travel. Chapter 2 discusses the 50% Limit in more detail, and chapter 6 discusses accountable and nonaccountable plans.

You can use the actual cost of your meals to figure the amount of your expense before reimbursement and application of the 50% deduction limit. If you use this method, you must keep records of your actual cost.

Standard Meal Allowance

Generally, you can use the “standard meal allowance” method as an alternative to the actual cost method. It allows you to use a set amount for your daily meals and incidental expenses (M&IE), instead of keeping records of your actual costs. The set amount varies depending on where and when you travel. In this publication, “standard meal allowance” refers to the federal rate for M&IE, discussed later under Amount of standard meal allowance . If you use the standard meal allowance, you must still keep records to prove the time, place, and business purpose of your travel. See the recordkeeping rules for travel in chapter 5 .

The term “incidental expenses” means fees and tips given to porters, baggage carriers, hotel staff, and staff on ships.

Incidental expenses don’t include expenses for laundry, cleaning and pressing of clothing, lodging taxes, costs of telegrams or telephone calls, transportation between places of lodging or business and places where meals are taken, or the mailing cost of filing travel vouchers and paying employer-sponsored charge card billings.

You can use an optional method (instead of actual cost) for deducting incidental expenses only. The amount of the deduction is $5 a day. You can use this method only if you didn’t pay or incur any meal expenses. You can’t use this method on any day that you use the standard meal allowance. This method is subject to the proration rules for partial days. See Travel for days you depart and return , later, in this chapter.

The incidental-expenses-only method isn’t subject to the 50% limit discussed below.

If you use the standard meal allowance method for non-entertainment-related meal expenses and you aren’t reimbursed or you are reimbursed under a nonaccountable plan, you can generally deduct only 50% of the standard meal allowance. If you are reimbursed under an accountable plan and you are deducting amounts that are more than your reimbursements, you can deduct only 50% of the excess amount. The 50% Limit is discussed in more detail in chapter 2, and accountable and nonaccountable plans are discussed in chapter 6.

You can use the standard meal allowance whether you are an employee or self-employed, and whether or not you are reimbursed for your traveling expenses.

You can use the standard meal allowance to figure your meal expenses when you travel in connection with investment and other income-producing property. You can also use it to figure your meal expenses when you travel for qualifying educational purposes. You can’t use the standard meal allowance to figure the cost of your meals when you travel for medical or charitable purposes.

The standard meal allowance is the federal M&IE rate. For travel in 2023, the rate for most small localities in the United States is $59 per day.

Most major cities and many other localities in the United States are designated as high-cost areas, qualifying for higher standard meal allowances.

If you travel to more than one location in one day, use the rate in effect for the area where you stop for sleep or rest. If you work in the transportation industry, however, see Special rate for transportation workers , later.

Per diem rates are listed by the federal government's fiscal year, which runs from October 1 to September 30. You can choose to use the rates from the 2022 fiscal year per diem tables or the rates from the 2023 fiscal year tables, but you must consistently use the same tables for all travel you are reporting on your income tax return for the year. See Transition Rules , later.

The standard meal allowance rates above don’t apply to travel in Alaska, Hawaii, or any other location outside the continental United States. The Department of Defense establishes per diem rates for Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, Midway, the Northern Mariana Islands, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Wake Island, and other non-foreign areas outside the continental United States. The Department of State establishes per diem rates for all other foreign areas.

You can use a special standard meal allowance if you work in the transportation industry. You are in the transportation industry if your work:

Directly involves moving people or goods by airplane, barge, bus, ship, train, or truck; and

Regularly requires you to travel away from home and, during any single trip, usually involves travel to areas eligible for different standard meal allowance rates.

Using the special rate for transportation workers eliminates the need for you to determine the standard meal allowance for every area where you stop for sleep or rest. If you choose to use the special rate for any trip, you must use the special rate (and not use the regular standard meal allowance rates) for all trips you take that year.

For both the day you depart for and the day you return from a business trip, you must prorate the standard meal allowance (figure a reduced amount for each day). You can do so by one of two methods.

Method 1: You can claim 3 / 4 of the standard meal allowance.

Method 2: You can prorate using any method that you consistently apply and that is in accordance with reasonable business practice.

You are employed in New Orleans as a convention planner. In March, your employer sent you on a 3-day trip to Washington, DC, to attend a planning seminar. You left your home in New Orleans at 10 a.m. on Wednesday and arrived in Washington, DC, at 5:30 p.m. After spending 2 nights there, you flew back to New Orleans on Friday and arrived back home at 8 p.m. Your employer gave you a flat amount to cover your expenses and included it with your wages.

Under Method 1 , you can claim 2½ days of the standard meal allowance for Washington, DC: 3 / 4 of the daily rate for Wednesday and Friday (the days you departed and returned), and the full daily rate for Thursday.

Under Method 2 , you could also use any method that you apply consistently and that is in accordance with reasonable business practice. For example, you could claim 3 days of the standard meal allowance even though a federal employee would have to use Method 1 and be limited to only 2½ days.

Travel in the United States

The following discussion applies to travel in the United States. For this purpose, the United States includes the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The treatment of your travel expenses depends on how much of your trip was business related and on how much of your trip occurred within the United States. See Part of Trip Outside the United States , later.

You can deduct all of your travel expenses if your trip was entirely business related. If your trip was primarily for business and, while at your business destination, you extended your stay for a vacation, made a personal side trip, or had other personal activities, you can deduct only your business-related travel expenses. These expenses include the travel costs of getting to and from your business destination and any business-related expenses at your business destination.

You work in Atlanta and take a business trip to New Orleans in May. Your business travel totals 900 miles round trip. On your way home, you stop in Mobile to visit your parents. You spend $2,165 for the 9 days you are away from home for travel, non-entertainment-related meals, lodging, and other travel expenses. If you hadn’t stopped in Mobile, you would have been gone only 6 days, and your total cost would have been $1,633.50. You can deduct $1,633.50 for your trip, including the cost of round-trip transportation to and from New Orleans. The deduction for your non-entertainment-related meals is subject to the 50% limit on meals mentioned earlier.

If your trip was primarily for personal reasons, such as a vacation, the entire cost of the trip is a nondeductible personal expense. However, you can deduct any expenses you have while at your destination that are directly related to your business.

A trip to a resort or on a cruise ship may be a vacation even if the promoter advertises that it is primarily for business. The scheduling of incidental business activities during a trip, such as viewing videotapes or attending lectures dealing with general subjects, won’t change what is really a vacation into a business trip.

Part of Trip Outside the United States

If part of your trip is outside the United States, use the rules described later in this chapter under Travel Outside the United States for that part of the trip. For the part of your trip that is inside the United States, use the rules for travel in the United States. Travel outside the United States doesn’t include travel from one point in the United States to another point in the United States. The following discussion can help you determine whether your trip was entirely within the United States.

If you travel by public transportation, any place in the United States where that vehicle makes a scheduled stop is a point in the United States. Once the vehicle leaves the last scheduled stop in the United States on its way to a point outside the United States, you apply the rules under Travel Outside the United States , later.

You fly from New York to Puerto Rico with a scheduled stop in Miami. Puerto Rico isn’t considered part of the United States for purposes of travel. You return to New York nonstop. The flight from New York to Miami is in the United States, so only the flight from Miami to Puerto Rico is outside the United States. Because there are no scheduled stops between Puerto Rico and New York, all of the return trip is outside the United States.

Travel by private car in the United States is travel between points in the United States, even though you are on your way to a destination outside the United States.

You travel by car from Denver to Mexico City and return. Your travel from Denver to the border and from the border back to Denver is travel in the United States, and the rules in this section apply. The rules below under Travel Outside the United States apply to your trip from the border to Mexico City and back to the border.

Travel Outside the United States

If any part of your business travel is outside the United States, some of your deductions for the cost of getting to and from your destination may be limited. For this purpose, the United States includes the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

How much of your travel expenses you can deduct depends in part upon how much of your trip outside the United States was business related.

Travel Entirely for Business or Considered Entirely for Business

You can deduct all your travel expenses of getting to and from your business destination if your trip is entirely for business or considered entirely for business.

If you travel outside the United States and you spend the entire time on business activities, you can deduct all of your travel expenses.

Even if you didn’t spend your entire time on business activities, your trip is considered entirely for business if you meet at least one of the following four exceptions.

Your trip is considered entirely for business if you didn’t have substantial control over arranging the trip. The fact that you control the timing of your trip doesn’t, by itself, mean that you have substantial control over arranging your trip.

You don’t have substantial control over your trip if you:

Are an employee who was reimbursed or paid a travel expense allowance, and

Aren’t related to your employer, or

Aren’t a managing executive.

“Related to your employer” is defined later in chapter 6 under Per Diem and Car Allowances .

A “managing executive” is an employee who has the authority and responsibility, without being subject to the veto of another, to decide on the need for the business travel.

A self-employed person generally has substantial control over arranging business trips.

Your trip is considered entirely for business if you were outside the United States for a week or less, combining business and nonbusiness activities. One week means 7 consecutive days. In counting the days, don’t count the day you leave the United States, but do count the day you return to the United States.

You traveled to Brussels primarily for business. You left Denver on Tuesday and flew to New York. On Wednesday, you flew from New York to Brussels, arriving the next morning. On Thursday and Friday, you had business discussions, and from Saturday until Tuesday, you were sightseeing. You flew back to New York, arriving Wednesday afternoon. On Thursday, you flew back to Denver.

Although you were away from your home in Denver for more than a week, you weren’t outside the United States for more than a week. This is because the day you depart doesn’t count as a day outside the United States.

You can deduct your cost of the round-trip flight between Denver and Brussels. You can also deduct the cost of your stay in Brussels for Thursday and Friday while you conducted business. However, you can’t deduct the cost of your stay in Brussels from Saturday through Tuesday because those days were spent on nonbusiness activities.

Your trip is considered entirely for business if:

You were outside the United States for more than a week, and

You spent less than 25% of the total time you were outside the United States on nonbusiness activities.

You flew from Seattle to Tokyo, where you spent 14 days on business and 5 days on personal matters. You then flew back to Seattle. You spent 1 day flying in each direction.

Because only 5 / 21 (less than 25%) of your total time abroad was for nonbusiness activities, you can deduct as travel expenses what it would have cost you to make the trip if you hadn’t engaged in any nonbusiness activity. The amount you can deduct is the cost of the round-trip plane fare and 16 days of non-entertainment-related meals (subject to the 50% Limit ), lodging, and other related expenses.

Your trip is considered entirely for business if you can establish that a personal vacation wasn’t a major consideration, even if you have substantial control over arranging the trip.

Travel Primarily for Business

If you travel outside the United States primarily for business but spend some of your time on other activities, you generally can’t deduct all of your travel expenses. You can only deduct the business portion of your cost of getting to and from your destination. You must allocate the costs between your business and other activities to determine your deductible amount. See Travel allocation rules , later.

If your trip outside the United States was primarily for business, you must allocate your travel time on a day-to-day basis between business days and nonbusiness days. The days you depart from and return to the United States are both counted as days outside the United States.

To figure the deductible amount of your round-trip travel expenses, use the following fraction. The numerator (top number) is the total number of business days outside the United States. The denominator (bottom number) is the total number of business and nonbusiness days of travel.

Your business days include transportation days, days your presence was required, days you spent on business, and certain weekends and holidays.

Count as a business day any day you spend traveling to or from a business destination. However, if because of a nonbusiness activity you don’t travel by a direct route, your business days are the days it would take you to travel a reasonably direct route to your business destination. Extra days for side trips or nonbusiness activities can’t be counted as business days.

Count as a business day any day your presence is required at a particular place for a specific business purpose. Count it as a business day even if you spend most of the day on nonbusiness activities.

If your principal activity during working hours is the pursuit of your trade or business, count the day as a business day. Also, count as a business day any day you are prevented from working because of circumstances beyond your control.

Count weekends, holidays, and other necessary standby days as business days if they fall between business days. But if they follow your business meetings or activity and you remain at your business destination for nonbusiness or personal reasons, don’t count them as business days.

Your tax home is New York City. You travel to Quebec, where you have a business meeting on Friday. You have another meeting on the following Monday. Because your presence was required on both Friday and Monday, they are business days. Because the weekend is between business days, Saturday and Sunday are counted as business days. This is true even though you use the weekend for sightseeing, visiting friends, or other nonbusiness activity.

If, in Example 1 , you had no business in Quebec after Friday, but stayed until Monday before starting home, Saturday and Sunday would be nonbusiness days.

If you stopped for a vacation or other nonbusiness activity either on the way from the United States to your business destination, or on the way back to the United States from your business destination, you must allocate part of your travel expenses to the nonbusiness activity.

The part you must allocate is the amount it would have cost you to travel between the point where travel outside the United States begins and your nonbusiness destination and a return to the point where travel outside the United States ends.

You determine the nonbusiness portion of that expense by multiplying it by a fraction. The numerator (top number) of the fraction is the number of nonbusiness days during your travel outside the United States, and the denominator (bottom number) is the total number of days you spend outside the United States.

You live in New York. On May 4, you flew to Paris to attend a business conference that began on May 5. The conference ended at noon on May 14. That evening, you flew to Dublin where you visited with friends until the afternoon of May 21, when you flew directly home to New York. The primary purpose for the trip was to attend the conference.

If you hadn’t stopped in Dublin, you would have arrived home the evening of May 14. You don’t meet any of the exceptions that would allow you to consider your travel entirely for business. May 4 through May 14 (11 days) are business days and May 15 through May 21 (7 days) are nonbusiness days.

You can deduct the cost of your non-entertainment-related meals (subject to the 50% Limit ), lodging, and other business-related travel expenses while in Paris.

You can’t deduct your expenses while in Dublin. You also can’t deduct 7 / 18 of what it would have cost you to travel round trip between New York and Dublin.

You paid $750 to fly from New York to Paris, $400 to fly from Paris to Dublin, and $700 to fly from Dublin back to New York. Round-trip airfare from New York to Dublin would have been $1,250.

You figure the deductible part of your air travel expenses by subtracting 7 / 18 of the round-trip airfare and other expenses you would have had in traveling directly between New York and Dublin ($1,250 × 7 / 18 = $486) from your total expenses in traveling from New York to Paris to Dublin and back to New York ($750 + $400 + $700 = $1,850).

Your deductible air travel expense is $1,364 ($1,850 − $486).

If you had a vacation or other nonbusiness activity at, near, or beyond your business destination, you must allocate part of your travel expenses to the nonbusiness activity.

The part you must allocate is the amount it would have cost you to travel between the point where travel outside the United States begins and your business destination and a return to the point where travel outside the United States ends.

None of your travel expenses for nonbusiness activities at, near, or beyond your business destination are deductible.

Assume that the dates are the same as in the previous example but that instead of going to Dublin for your vacation, you fly to Venice, Italy, for a vacation.

You can’t deduct any part of the cost of your trip from Paris to Venice and return to Paris. In addition, you can’t deduct 7 / 18 of the airfare and other expenses from New York to Paris and back to New York.

You can deduct 11 / 18 of the round-trip plane fare and other travel expenses from New York to Paris, plus your non-entertainment-related meals (subject to the 50% Limit ), lodging, and any other business expenses you had in Paris. (Assume these expenses total $4,939.) If the round-trip plane fare and other travel-related expenses (such as food during the trip) are $1,750, you can deduct travel costs of $1,069 ( 11 / 18 × $1,750), plus the full $4,939 for the expenses you had in Paris.

You can use another method of counting business days if you establish that it more clearly reflects the time spent on other than business activities outside the United States.

If you travel outside the United States primarily for vacation or for investment purposes, the entire cost of the trip is a nondeductible personal expense. However, if you spend some time attending brief professional seminars or a continuing education program, you can deduct your registration fees and other expenses you have that are directly related to your business.

The university from which you graduated has a continuing education program for members of its alumni association. This program consists of trips to various foreign countries where academic exercises and conferences are set up to acquaint individuals in most occupations with selected facilities in several regions of the world. However, none of the conferences are directed toward specific occupations or professions. It is up to each participant to seek out specialists and organizational settings appropriate to their occupational interests.

Three-hour sessions are held each day over a 5-day period at each of the selected overseas facilities where participants can meet with individual practitioners. These sessions are composed of a variety of activities including workshops, mini-lectures, roleplaying, skill development, and exercises. Professional conference directors schedule and conduct the sessions. Participants can choose those sessions they wish to attend.

You can participate in this program because you are a member of the alumni association. You and your family take one of the trips. You spend about 2 hours at each of the planned sessions. The rest of the time you go touring and sightseeing with your family. The trip lasts less than 1 week.

Your travel expenses for the trip aren’t deductible since the trip was primarily a vacation. However, registration fees and any other incidental expenses you have for the five planned sessions you attended that are directly related and beneficial to your business are deductible business expenses. These expenses should be specifically stated in your records to ensure proper allocation of your deductible business expenses.

Luxury Water Travel

If you travel by ocean liner, cruise ship, or other form of luxury water transportation for business purposes, there is a daily limit on the amount you can deduct. The limit is twice the highest federal per diem rate allowable at the time of your travel. (Generally, the federal per diem is the amount paid to federal government employees for daily living expenses when they travel away from home within the United States for business purposes.)

The highest federal per diem rate allowed and the daily limit for luxury water travel in 2023 are shown in the following table.

You are a travel agent and traveled by ocean liner from New York to London, England, on business in May. Your expense for the 6-day cruise was $6,200. Your deduction for the cruise can’t exceed $4,776 (6 days × $796 daily limit).

If your expenses for luxury water travel include separately stated amounts for meals or entertainment, those amounts are subject to the 50% limit on non-entertainment-related meals and entertainment before you apply the daily limit. For a discussion of the 50% Limit , see chapter 2.

In the previous example, your luxury water travel had a total cost of $6,200. Of that amount, $3,700 was separately stated as non-entertainment-related meals and $1,000 was separately stated as entertainment. Considering that you are self-employed, you aren’t reimbursed for any of your travel expenses. You figure your deductible travel expenses as follows.

If your meal or entertainment charges aren’t separately stated or aren’t clearly identifiable, you don’t have to allocate any portion of the total charge to meals or entertainment.

The daily limit on luxury water travel (discussed earlier) doesn’t apply to expenses you have to attend a convention, seminar, or meeting on board a cruise ship. See Cruise Ships , later, under Conventions.

Conventions

You can deduct your travel expenses when you attend a convention if you can show that your attendance benefits your trade or business. You can’t deduct the travel expenses for your family.

If the convention is for investment, political, social, or other purposes unrelated to your trade or business, you can’t deduct the expenses.

The convention agenda or program generally shows the purpose of the convention. You can show your attendance at the convention benefits your trade or business by comparing the agenda with the official duties and responsibilities of your position. The agenda doesn’t have to deal specifically with your official duties and responsibilities; it will be enough if the agenda is so related to your position that it shows your attendance was for business purposes.

Conventions Held Outside the North American Area

You can’t deduct expenses for attending a convention, seminar, or similar meeting held outside the North American area unless:

The meeting is directly related to the active conduct of your trade or business, and

It is as reasonable to hold the meeting outside the North American area as within the North American area. See Reasonableness test , later.

The North American area includes the following locations.

The following factors are taken into account to determine if it was as reasonable to hold the meeting outside the North American area as within the North American area.

The purpose of the meeting and the activities taking place at the meeting.

The purposes and activities of the sponsoring organizations or groups.

The homes of the active members of the sponsoring organizations and the places at which other meetings of the sponsoring organizations or groups have been or will be held.

Other relevant factors you may present.

You can deduct up to $2,000 per year of your expenses of attending conventions, seminars, or similar meetings held on cruise ships. All ships that sail are considered cruise ships.

You can deduct these expenses only if all of the following requirements are met.

The convention, seminar, or meeting is directly related to the active conduct of your trade or business.

The cruise ship is a vessel registered in the United States.

All of the cruise ship's ports of call are in the United States or in territories of the United States.

You attach to your return a written statement signed by you that includes information about:

The total days of the trip (not including the days of transportation to and from the cruise ship port),

The number of hours each day that you devoted to scheduled business activities, and

A program of the scheduled business activities of the meeting.

You attach to your return a written statement signed by an officer of the organization or group sponsoring the meeting that includes:

A schedule of the business activities of each day of the meeting, and

The number of hours you attended the scheduled business activities.

2. Meals and Entertainment

You can no longer take a deduction for any expense related to activities generally considered entertainment, amusement, or recreation. You can continue to deduct 50% of the cost of business meals if you (or your employee) are present and the food or beverages aren't considered lavish or extravagant.

Entertainment

Entertainment—defined.

Entertainment includes any activity generally considered to provide entertainment, amusement, or recreation. Examples include entertaining guests at nightclubs; at social, athletic, and sporting clubs; at theaters; at sporting events; on yachts; or on hunting, fishing, vacation, and similar trips. Entertainment may also include meeting personal, living, or family needs of individuals, such as providing meals, a hotel suite, or a car to customers or their families.

Your kind of business may determine if a particular activity is considered entertainment. For example, if you are a dress designer and have a fashion show to introduce your new designs to store buyers, the show generally isn’t considered entertainment. This is because fashion shows are typical in your business. But, if you are an appliance distributor and hold a fashion show for the spouses of your retailers, the show is generally considered entertainment.

If you have one expense that includes the costs of entertainment and other services (such as lodging or transportation), you must allocate that expense between the cost of entertainment and the cost of other services. You must have a reasonable basis for making this allocation. For example, you must allocate your expenses if a hotel includes entertainment in its lounge on the same bill with your room charge.

In general, entertainment expenses are nondeductible. However, there are a few exceptions to the general rule, including:

Entertainment treated as compensation on your originally filed tax returns (and treated as wages to your employees);

Recreational expenses for employees such as a holiday party or a summer picnic;

Expenses related to attending business meetings or conventions of certain exempt organizations such as business leagues, chambers of commerce, professional associations, etc.; and

Entertainment sold to customers. For example, if you run a nightclub, your expenses for the entertainment you furnish to your customers, such as a floor show, aren’t subject to the nondeductible rules.

Examples of Nondeductible Entertainment

Generally, you can't deduct any expense for an entertainment event. This includes expenses for entertaining guests at nightclubs; at social, athletic, and sporting clubs; at theaters; at sporting events; on yachts; or on hunting, fishing, vacation, and similar trips.

Generally, you can’t deduct any expense for the use of an entertainment facility. This includes expenses for depreciation and operating costs such as rent, utilities, maintenance, and protection.

An entertainment facility is any property you own, rent, or use for entertainment. Examples include a yacht, hunting lodge, fishing camp, swimming pool, tennis court, bowling alley, car, airplane, apartment, hotel suite, or home in a vacation resort.

You can’t deduct dues (including initiation fees) for membership in any club organized for business, pleasure, recreation, or other social purposes.

This rule applies to any membership organization if one of its principal purposes is either:

To conduct entertainment activities for members or their guests; or

To provide members or their guests with access to entertainment facilities, discussed later.

The purposes and activities of a club, not its name, will determine whether or not you can deduct the dues. You can’t deduct dues paid to:

Country clubs,

Golf and athletic clubs,

Airline clubs,

Hotel clubs, and

Clubs operated to provide meals under circumstances generally considered to be conducive to business discussions.

Any item that might be considered either a gift or entertainment will generally be considered entertainment. However, if you give a customer packaged food or beverages that you intend the customer to use at a later date, treat it as a gift.

As discussed above, entertainment expenses are generally nondeductible. However, you may continue to deduct 50% of the cost of business meals if you (or an employee) is present and the food or beverages are not considered lavish or extravagant. The meals may be provided to a current or potential business customer, client, consultant, or similar business contact.

Food and beverages that are provided during entertainment events are not considered entertainment if purchased separately from the entertainment, or if the cost of the food and beverages is stated separately from the cost of the entertainment on one or more bills, invoices, or receipts. However, the entertainment disallowance rule may not be circumvented through inflating the amount charged for food and beverages.

Any allowed expense must be ordinary and necessary. An ordinary expense is one that is common and accepted in your trade or business. A necessary expense is one that is helpful and appropriate for your business. An expense doesn't have to be required to be considered necessary. Expenses must not be lavish or extravagant. An expense isn't considered lavish or extravagant if it is reasonable based on the facts and circumstances.

For each example, assume that the food and beverage expenses are ordinary and necessary expenses under section 162(a) paid or incurred during the tax year in carrying on a trade or business and are not lavish or extravagant under the circumstances. Also assume that the taxpayer and the business contact are not engaged in a trade or business that has any relation to the entertainment activity.

Taxpayer A invites B, a business contact, to a baseball game. A purchases tickets for A and B to attend the game. While at the game, A buys hot dogs and drinks for A and B. The baseball game is entertainment as defined in Regulations section 1.274-11(b)(1)(i) and, thus, the cost of the game tickets is an entertainment expense and is not deductible by A. The cost of the hot dogs and drinks, which are purchased separately from the game tickets, is not an entertainment expense and is not subject to the section 274(a)(1) disallowance. Therefore, A may deduct 50% of the expenses associated with the hot dogs and drinks purchased at the game.

Taxpayer C invites D, a business contact, to a basketball game. C purchases tickets for C and D to attend the game in a suite, where they have access to food and beverages. The cost of the basketball game tickets, as stated on the invoice, includes the food and beverages. The basketball game is entertainment as defined in Regulations section 1.274-11(b)(1)(i) and, thus, the cost of the game tickets is an entertainment expense and is not deductible by C. The cost of the food and beverages, which are not purchased separately from the game tickets, is not stated separately on the invoice. Thus, the cost of the food and beverages is also an entertainment expense that is subject to the section 274(a)(1) disallowance. Therefore, C may not deduct any of the expenses associated with the basketball game.

Assume the same facts as in Example 2 , except that the invoice for the basketball game tickets separately states the cost of the food and beverages. As in Example 2 , the basketball game is entertainment as defined in Regulations section 1.274-2(b)(1)(i) and, thus, the cost of the game tickets, other than the cost of the food and beverages, is an entertainment expense and is not deductible by C. However, the cost of the food and beverages, which is stated separately on the invoice for the game tickets, is not an entertainment expense and is not subject to the section 274(a)(1) disallowance. Therefore, C may deduct 50% of the expenses associated with the food and beverages provided at the game.

In general, you can deduct only 50% of your business-related meal expenses, unless an exception applies. (If you are subject to the Department of Transportation's “hours of service” limits, you can deduct 80% of your business-related meal expenses. See Individuals subject to hours of service limits , later.)

The 50% limit applies to employees or their employers, and to self-employed persons (including independent contractors) or their clients, depending on whether the expenses are reimbursed.

Examples of meals might include:

Meals while traveling away from home (whether eating alone or with others) on business, or

Meal at a business convention or business league meeting.

Figure A. Does the 50% Limit Apply to Your Expenses?

There are exceptions to these rules. See Exceptions to the 50% Limit for Meals , later.

Figure A. Does the 50% limit apply to Your Expenses?TAs for Figure A are: Notice 87-23; Form 2106 instructions

Summary: This is a flowchart used to determine if employees and self-employed persons need to put a 50% limit on their business expense deductions.

This is the starting of the flowchart.

Decision (1)

Were your meal and entertainment expenses reimbursed? (Count only reimbursements your employer didn’t include in box 1 of your Form W-2. If self-employed, count only reimbursements from clients or customers that aren’t included on Form 1099-MISC, Miscellaneous Income.)

Decision (2)

If an employee, did you adequately account to your employer under an accountable plan? If self-employed, did you provide the payer with adequate records? (See Chapter 6.)

Decision (3)

Did your expenses exceed the reimbursement?

Decision (4)

Process (a)

Your meal and entertainment expenses are NOT subject to the limitations. However, since the reimbursement wasn’t treated as wages or as other taxable income, you can’t deduct the expenses.

Process (b)

Your nonentertainment meal expenses ARE subject to the 50% limit. Your entertainment expenses are nondeductible.

This is the ending of the flowchart.

Please click here for the text description of the image.

Taxes and tips relating to a business meal are included as a cost of the meal and are subject to the 50% limit. However, the cost of transportation to and from the meal is not treated as part of the cost and would not be subject to the limit.

The 50% limit on meal expenses applies if the expense is otherwise deductible and isn’t covered by one of the exceptions discussed later. Figure A can help you determine if the 50% limit applies to you.

The 50% limit also applies to certain meal expenses that aren’t business related. It applies to meal expenses you have for the production of income, including rental or royalty income. It also applies to the cost of meals included in deductible educational expenses.

The 50% limit will apply after determining the amount that would otherwise qualify for a deduction. You first have to determine the amount of meal expenses that would be deductible under the other rules discussed in this publication.

If a group of business acquaintances takes turns picking up each others' meal checks primarily for personal reasons, without regard to whether any business purposes are served, no member of the group can deduct any part of the expense.

You spend $200 (including tax and tip) for a business meal. If $110 of that amount isn’t allowable because it is lavish and extravagant, the remaining $90 is subject to the 50% limit. Your deduction can’t be more than $45 (50% (0.50) × $90).

You purchase two tickets to a concert for $200 for you and your client. Your deduction is zero because no deduction is allowed for entertainment expenses.

Exception to the 50% Limit for Meals

Your meal expense isn’t subject to the 50% limit if the expense meets one of the following exceptions.

In general, expenses for goods, services, and facilities, to the extent the expenses are treated by the taxpayer, with respect to entertainment, amusement, or recreation, as compensation to an employee and as wages to the employee for tax purposes.

If you are an employee, you aren’t subject to the 50% limit on expenses for which your employer reimburses you under an accountable plan. Accountable plans are discussed in chapter 6.

If you are self-employed, your deductible meal expenses aren’t subject to the 50% limit if all of the following requirements are met.

You have these expenses as an independent contractor.

Your customer or client reimburses you or gives you an allowance for these expenses in connection with services you perform.

You provide adequate records of these expenses to your customer or client. (See chapter 5 .)

In this case, your client or customer is subject to the 50% limit on the expenses.

You are a self-employed attorney who adequately accounts for meal expenses to a client who reimburses you for these expenses. You aren’t subject to the limitation on meal expenses. If the client can deduct the expenses, the client is subject to the 50% limit.

If you (as an independent contractor) have expenses for meals related to providing services for a client but don’t adequately account for and seek reimbursement from the client for those expenses, you are subject to the 50% limit on non-entertainment-related meals and the entertainment-related meal expenses are nondeductible to you.

You aren't subject to the 50% limit for expenses for recreational, social, or similar activities (including facilities) such as a holiday party or a summer picnic.

You aren’t subject to the 50% limit if you provide meals to the general public as a means of advertising or promoting goodwill in the community. For example, neither the expense of sponsoring a television or radio show nor the expense of distributing free food and beverages to the general public is subject to the 50% limit.

You aren’t subject to the 50% limit if you actually sell meals to the public. For example, if you run a restaurant, your expense for the food you furnish to your customers isn’t subject to the 50% limit.

You can deduct a higher percentage of your meal expenses while traveling away from your tax home if the meals take place during or incident to any period subject to the Department of Transportation's “hours of service” limits. The percentage is 80%.

Individuals subject to the Department of Transportation's “hours of service” limits include the following persons.

Certain air transportation workers (such as pilots, crew, dispatchers, mechanics, and control tower operators) who are under Federal Aviation Administration regulations.

Interstate truck operators and bus drivers who are under Department of Transportation regulations.

Certain railroad employees (such as engineers, conductors, train crews, dispatchers, and control operations personnel) who are under Federal Railroad Administration regulations.

Certain merchant mariners who are under Coast Guard regulations.

If you give gifts in the course of your trade or business, you may be able to deduct all or part of the cost. This chapter explains the limits and rules for deducting the costs of gifts.

You can deduct no more than $25 for business gifts you give directly or indirectly to each person during your tax year. A gift to a company that is intended for the eventual personal use or benefit of a particular person or a limited class of people will be considered an indirect gift to that particular person or to the individuals within that class of people who receive the gift.

If you give a gift to a member of a customer's family, the gift is generally considered to be an indirect gift to the customer. This rule doesn’t apply if you have a bona fide, independent business connection with that family member and the gift isn’t intended for the customer's eventual use.

If you and your spouse both give gifts, both of you are treated as one taxpayer. It doesn’t matter whether you have separate businesses, are separately employed, or whether each of you has an independent connection with the recipient. If a partnership gives gifts, the partnership and the partners are treated as one taxpayer.

You sell products to a local company. You and your spouse gave the local company three gourmet gift baskets to thank them for their business. You and your spouse paid $80 for each gift basket, or $240 total. Three of the local company's executives took the gift baskets home for their families' use. You and your spouse have no independent business relationship with any of the executives' other family members. You and your spouse can deduct a total of $75 ($25 limit × 3) for the gift baskets.

Incidental costs, such as engraving on jewelry, or packaging, insuring, and mailing, are generally not included in determining the cost of a gift for purposes of the $25 limit.

A cost is incidental only if it doesn’t add substantial value to the gift. For example, the cost of gift wrapping is an incidental cost. However, the purchase of an ornamental basket for packaging fruit isn’t an incidental cost if the value of the basket is substantial compared to the value of the fruit.

The following items aren’t considered gifts for purposes of the $25 limit.

An item that costs $4 or less and:

Has your name clearly and permanently imprinted on the gift, and

Is one of a number of identical items you widely distribute. Examples include pens, desk sets, and plastic bags and cases.

Signs, display racks, or other promotional material to be used on the business premises of the recipient.

Figure B. When Are Transportation Expenses Deductible?

Most employees and self-employed persons can use this chart. (Don’t use this chart if your home is your principal place of business. See Office in the home , later.)

Figure B. When Are Local Transportation Expenses Deductible?TAs for Figure B are: Reg 1.162-1(a); RR 55–109; RR 94–47

Summary: This illustration depicts the rules used to determine if transportation expenses are deductible.

The image then lists definitions for words used in the graphic:

Any item that might be considered either a gift or entertainment will generally be considered entertainment. However, if you give a customer packaged food or beverages you intend the customer to use at a later date, treat it as a gift.

4. Transportation

This chapter discusses expenses you can deduct for business transportation when you aren’t traveling away from home , as defined in chapter 1. These expenses include the cost of transportation by air, rail, bus, taxi, etc., and the cost of driving and maintaining your car.

Transportation expenses include the ordinary and necessary costs of all of the following.

Getting from one workplace to another in the course of your business or profession when you are traveling within the city or general area that is your tax home. Tax home is defined in chapter 1.

Visiting clients or customers.

Going to a business meeting away from your regular workplace.

Getting from your home to a temporary workplace when you have one or more regular places of work. These temporary workplaces can be either within the area of your tax home or outside that area.

Daily transportation expenses you incur while traveling from home to one or more regular places of business are generally nondeductible commuting expenses. However, there may be exceptions to this general rule. You can deduct daily transportation expenses incurred going between your residence and a temporary work station outside the metropolitan area where you live. Also, daily transportation expenses can be deducted if (1) you have one or more regular work locations away from your residence; or (2) your residence is your principal place of business and you incur expenses going between the residence and another work location in the same trade or business, regardless of whether the work is temporary or permanent and regardless of the distance.

Illustration of transportation expenses.

Figure B above illustrates the rules that apply for deducting transportation expenses when you have a regular or main job away from your home. You may want to refer to it when deciding whether you can deduct your transportation expenses.

If you have one or more regular work locations away from your home and you commute to a temporary work location in the same trade or business, you can deduct the expenses of the daily round-trip transportation between your home and the temporary location, regardless of distance.

If your employment at a work location is realistically expected to last (and does in fact last) for 1 year or less, the employment is temporary unless there are facts and circumstances that would indicate otherwise.

If your employment at a work location is realistically expected to last for more than 1 year or if there is no realistic expectation that the employment will last for 1 year or less, the employment isn’t temporary, regardless of whether it actually lasts for more than 1 year.

If employment at a work location initially is realistically expected to last for 1 year or less, but at some later date the employment is realistically expected to last more than 1 year, that employment will be treated as temporary (unless there are facts and circumstances that would indicate otherwise) until your expectation changes. It won’t be treated as temporary after the date you determine it will last more than 1 year.

If the temporary work location is beyond the general area of your regular place of work and you stay overnight, you are traveling away from home. You may have deductible travel expenses, as discussed in chapter 1 .

If you have no regular place of work but ordinarily work in the metropolitan area where you live, you can deduct daily transportation costs between home and a temporary work site outside that metropolitan area.

Generally, a metropolitan area includes the area within the city limits and the suburbs that are considered part of that metropolitan area.

You can’t deduct daily transportation costs between your home and temporary work sites within your metropolitan area. These are nondeductible commuting expenses.

If you work at two places in 1 day, whether or not for the same employer, you can deduct the expense of getting from one workplace to the other. However, if for some personal reason you don’t go directly from one location to the other, you can’t deduct more than the amount it would have cost you to go directly from the first location to the second.

Transportation expenses you have in going between home and a part-time job on a day off from your main job are commuting expenses. You can’t deduct them.

A meeting of an Armed Forces reserve unit is a second place of business if the meeting is held on a day on which you work at your regular job. You can deduct the expense of getting from one workplace to the other as just discussed under Two places of work .

You usually can’t deduct the expense if the reserve meeting is held on a day on which you don’t work at your regular job. In this case, your transportation is generally a nondeductible commuting expense. However, you can deduct your transportation expenses if the location of the meeting is temporary and you have one or more regular places of work.

If you ordinarily work in a particular metropolitan area but not at any specific location and the reserve meeting is held at a temporary location outside that metropolitan area, you can deduct your transportation expenses.

If you travel away from home overnight to attend a guard or reserve meeting, you can deduct your travel expenses. These expenses are discussed in chapter 1 .

If you travel more than 100 miles away from home in connection with your performance of services as a member of the reserves, you may be able to deduct some of your reserve-related travel costs as an adjustment to gross income rather than as an itemized deduction. For more information, see Armed Forces Reservists Traveling More Than 100 Miles From Home under Special Rules in chapter 6.

You can’t deduct the costs of taking a bus, trolley, subway, or taxi, or of driving a car between your home and your main or regular place of work. These costs are personal commuting expenses. You can’t deduct commuting expenses no matter how far your home is from your regular place of work. You can’t deduct commuting expenses even if you work during the commuting trip.

You sometimes use your cell phone to make business calls while commuting to and from work. Sometimes business associates ride with you to and from work, and you have a business discussion in the car. These activities don’t change the trip from personal to business. You can’t deduct your commuting expenses.

Fees you pay to park your car at your place of business are nondeductible commuting expenses. You can, however, deduct business-related parking fees when visiting a customer or client.

Putting display material that advertises your business on your car doesn’t change the use of your car from personal use to business use. If you use this car for commuting or other personal uses, you still can’t deduct your expenses for those uses.

You can’t deduct the cost of using your car in a nonprofit car pool. Don’t include payments you receive from the passengers in your income. These payments are considered reimbursements of your expenses. However, if you operate a car pool for a profit, you must include payments from passengers in your income. You can then deduct your car expenses (using the rules in this publication).

Hauling tools or instruments in your car while commuting to and from work doesn’t make your car expenses deductible. However, you can deduct any additional costs you have for hauling tools or instruments (such as for renting a trailer you tow with your car).

If you get your work assignments at a union hall and then go to your place of work, the costs of getting from the union hall to your place of work are nondeductible commuting expenses. Although you need the union to get your work assignments, you are employed where you work, not where the union hall is located.

If you have an office in your home that qualifies as a principal place of business, you can deduct your daily transportation costs between your home and another work location in the same trade or business. (See Pub. 587, Business Use of Your Home, for information on determining if your home office qualifies as a principal place of business.)

The following examples show when you can deduct transportation expenses based on the location of your work and your home.

You regularly work in an office in the city where you live. Your employer sends you to a 1-week training session at a different office in the same city. You travel directly from your home to the training location and return each day. You can deduct the cost of your daily round-trip transportation between your home and the training location.

Your principal place of business is in your home. You can deduct the cost of round-trip transportation between your qualifying home office and your client's or customer's place of business.

You have no regular office, and you don’t have an office in your home. In this case, the location of your first business contact inside the metropolitan area is considered your office. Transportation expenses between your home and this first contact are nondeductible commuting expenses. Transportation expenses between your last business contact and your home are also nondeductible commuting expenses. While you can’t deduct the costs of these trips, you can deduct the costs of going from one client or customer to another.

Car Expenses

If you use your car for business purposes, you may be able to deduct car expenses. You can generally use one of the two following methods to figure your deductible expenses.

Actual car expenses.

The cost of using your car as an employee, whether measured using actual expenses or the standard mileage rate, will no longer be allowed to be claimed as an unreimbursed employee travel expense as a miscellaneous itemized deduction due to the suspension of miscellaneous itemized deductions that are subject to the 2% floor under section 67(a). The suspension applies to tax years beginning after December 2017 and before January 2026. Deductions for expenses that are deductible in determining adjusted gross income are not suspended. For example, Armed Forces reservists, qualified performing artists, and fee-basis state or local government officials are allowed to deduct unreimbursed employee travel expenses as an adjustment to total income on Schedule 1 (Form 1040), line 12.

If you use actual expenses to figure your deduction for a car you lease, there are rules that affect the amount of your lease payments you can deduct. See Leasing a Car , later.

In this publication, “car” includes a van, pickup, or panel truck. For the definition of “car” for depreciation purposes, see Car defined under Actual Car Expenses , later.

Standard Mileage Rate

For 2023, the standard mileage rate for the cost of operating your car for business use is 65.5 cents ($0.655) per mile.

You can generally use the standard mileage rate whether or not you are reimbursed and whether or not any reimbursement is more or less than the amount figured using the standard mileage rate. See chapter 6 for more information on reimbursements .

If you want to use the standard mileage rate for a car you own, you must choose to use it in the first year the car is available for use in your business. Then, in later years, you can choose to use either the standard mileage rate or actual expenses.

If you want to use the standard mileage rate for a car you lease, you must use it for the entire lease period. For leases that began on or before December 31, 1997, the standard mileage rate must be used for the entire portion of the lease period (including renewals) that is after 1997.

You must make the choice to use the standard mileage rate by the due date (including extensions) of your return. You can’t revoke the choice. However, in later years, you can switch from the standard mileage rate to the actual expenses method. If you change to the actual expenses method in a later year, but before your car is fully depreciated, you have to estimate the remaining useful life of the car and use straight line depreciation for the car’s remaining estimated useful life, subject to depreciation limits (discussed later).

For more information about depreciation included in the standard mileage rate, see Exception under Methods of depreciation , later.

You can’t use the standard mileage rate if you:

Use five or more cars at the same time (such as in fleet operations);

Claimed a depreciation deduction for the car using any method other than straight line for the car’s estimated useful life;

Used the Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) (as discussed later under Depreciation Deduction );

Claimed a section 179 deduction (discussed later) on the car;

Claimed the special depreciation allowance on the car; or

Claimed actual car expenses after 1997 for a car you leased.

You can elect to use the standard mileage rate if you used a car for hire (such as a taxi) unless the standard mileage rate is otherwise not allowed, as discussed above.

If you own or lease five or more cars that are used for business at the same time, you can’t use the standard mileage rate for the business use of any car. However, you may be able to deduct your actual expenses for operating each of the cars in your business. See Actual Car Expenses , later, for information on how to figure your deduction.

You aren’t using five or more cars for business at the same time if you alternate using (use at different times) the cars for business.

The following examples illustrate the rules for when you can and can’t use the standard mileage rate for five or more cars.

A salesperson owns three cars and two vans that they alternate using for calling on their customers. The salesperson can use the standard mileage rate for the business mileage of the three cars and the two vans because they don’t use them at the same time.

You and your employees use your four pickup trucks in your landscaping business. During the year, you traded in two of your old trucks for two newer ones. You can use the standard mileage rate for the business mileage of all six of the trucks you owned during the year.

You own a repair shop and an insurance business. You and your employees use your two pickup trucks and van for the repair shop. You alternate using your two cars for the insurance business. No one else uses the cars for business purposes. You can use the standard mileage rate for the business use of the pickup trucks, the van, and the cars because you never have more than four vehicles used for business at the same time.

You own a car and four vans that are used in your housecleaning business. Your employees use the vans, and you use the car to travel to various customers. You can’t use the standard mileage rate for the car or the vans. This is because all five vehicles are used in your business at the same time. You must use actual expenses for all vehicles.

If you are an employee, you can’t deduct any interest paid on a car loan. This applies even if you use the car 100% for business as an employee.

However, if you are self-employed and use your car in your business, you can deduct that part of the interest expense that represents your business use of the car. For example, if you use your car 60% for business, you can deduct 60% of the interest on Schedule C (Form 1040). You can’t deduct the part of the interest expense that represents your personal use of the car.

If you itemize your deductions on Schedule A (Form 1040), you can deduct on line 5c state and local personal property taxes on motor vehicles. You can take this deduction even if you use the standard mileage rate or if you don’t use the car for business.

If you are self-employed and use your car in your business, you can deduct the business part of state and local personal property taxes on motor vehicles on Schedule C (Form 1040), or Schedule F (Form 1040). If you itemize your deductions, you can include the remainder of your state and local personal property taxes on the car on Schedule A (Form 1040).

In addition to using the standard mileage rate, you can deduct any business-related parking fees and tolls. (Parking fees you pay to park your car at your place of work are nondeductible commuting expenses.)

If you sell, trade in, or otherwise dispose of your car, you may have a gain or loss on the transaction or an adjustment to the basis of your new car. See Disposition of a Car , later.

Actual Car Expenses

If you don’t use the standard mileage rate, you may be able to deduct your actual car expenses.

Actual car expenses include:

If you have fully depreciated a car that you still use in your business, you can continue to claim your other actual car expenses. Continue to keep records, as explained later in chapter 5 .

If you use your car for both business and personal purposes, you must divide your expenses between business and personal use. You can divide your expense based on the miles driven for each purpose.

You are a contractor and drive your car 20,000 miles during the year: 12,000 miles for business use and 8,000 miles for personal use. You can claim only 60% (12,000 ÷ 20,000) of the cost of operating your car as a business expense.

If you use a vehicle provided by your employer for business purposes, you can deduct your actual unreimbursed car expenses. You can’t use the standard mileage rate. See Vehicle Provided by Your Employer in chapter 6.

If you are an employee, you can’t deduct any interest paid on a car loan. This interest is treated as personal interest and isn’t deductible. If you are self-employed and use your car in that business, see Interest , earlier, under Standard Mileage Rate.

If you are an employee, you can deduct personal property taxes paid on your car if you itemize deductions. Enter the amount paid on Schedule A (Form 1040), line 5c.

Generally, sales taxes on your car are part of your car's basis and are recovered through depreciation, discussed later.

You can’t deduct fines you pay or collateral you forfeit for traffic violations.

If your car is damaged, destroyed, or stolen, you may be able to deduct part of the loss not covered by insurance. See Pub. 547, Casualties, Disasters, and Thefts, for information on deducting a loss on your car.

Generally, the cost of a car, plus sales tax and improvements, is a capital expense. Because the benefits last longer than 1 year, you generally can’t deduct a capital expense. However, you can recover this cost through the section 179 deduction (the deduction allowed by section 179 of the Internal Revenue Code), special depreciation allowance, and depreciation deductions. Depreciation allows you to recover the cost over more than 1 year by deducting part of it each year. The section 179 deduction , special depreciation allowance , and depreciation deductions are discussed later.

Generally, there are limits on these deductions. Special rules apply if you use your car 50% or less in your work or business.

You can claim a section 179 deduction and use a depreciation method other than straight line only if you don’t use the standard mileage rate to figure your business-related car expenses in the year you first place a car in service.

If, in the year you first place a car in service, you claim either a section 179 deduction or use a depreciation method other than straight line for its estimated useful life, you can’t use the standard mileage rate on that car in any future year.

For depreciation purposes, a car is any four-wheeled vehicle (including a truck or van) made primarily for use on public streets, roads, and highways. Its unloaded gross vehicle weight (for trucks and vans, gross vehicle weight) must not be more than 6,000 pounds. A car includes any part, component, or other item physically attached to it or usually included in the purchase price.

A car doesn’t include:

An ambulance, hearse, or combination ambulance-hearse used directly in a business;

A vehicle used directly in the business of transporting persons or property for pay or hire; or

A truck or van that is a qualified nonpersonal use vehicle.

These are vehicles that by their nature aren’t likely to be used more than a minimal amount for personal purposes. They include trucks and vans that have been specially modified so that they aren’t likely to be used more than a minimal amount for personal purposes, such as by installation of permanent shelving and painting the vehicle to display advertising or the company's name. Delivery trucks with seating only for the driver, or only for the driver plus a folding jump seat, are qualified nonpersonal use vehicles.

See Depreciation Deduction , later, for more information on how to depreciate your vehicle.

Section 179 Deduction

You can elect to recover all or part of the cost of a car that is qualifying section 179 property, up to a limit, by deducting it in the year you place the property in service. This is the section 179 deduction. If you elect the section 179 deduction, you must reduce your depreciable basis in the car by the amount of the section 179 deduction.

You can claim the section 179 deduction only in the year you place the car in service. For this purpose, a car is placed in service when it is ready and available for a specifically assigned use in a trade or business. Even if you aren’t using the property, it is in service when it is ready and available for its specifically assigned use.

A car first used for personal purposes can’t qualify for the deduction in a later year when its use changes to business.

In 2022, you bought a new car and used it for personal purposes. In 2023, you began to use it for business. Changing its use to business use doesn’t qualify the cost of your car for a section 179 deduction in 2023. However, you can claim a depreciation deduction for the business use of the car starting in 2023. See Depreciation Deduction , later.

You must use the property more than 50% for business to claim any section 179 deduction. If you used the property more than 50% for business, multiply the cost of the property by the percentage of business use. The result is the cost of the property that can qualify for the section 179 deduction.

You purchased a new car in April 2023 for $24,500 and used it 60% for business. Based on your business usage, the total cost of your car that qualifies for the section 179 deduction is $14,700 ($24,500 cost × 60% (0.60) business use). But see Limit on total section 179, special depreciation allowance, and depreciation deduction , discussed later.

There are limits on:

The amount of the section 179 deduction;

The section 179 deduction for sport utility and certain other vehicles; and

The total amount of the section 179 deduction, special depreciation allowance, and depreciation deduction (discussed later ) you can claim for a qualified property.

For tax years beginning in 2023, the total amount you can elect to deduct under section 179 can’t be more than $1,160,000.

If the cost of your section 179 property placed in service in tax years beginning in 2023 is over $2,890,000, you must reduce the $1,160,000 dollar limit (but not below zero) by the amount of cost over $2,890,000. If the cost of your section 179 property placed in service during tax years beginning in 2023 is $4,050,000 or more, you can’t take a section 179 deduction.

The total amount you can deduct under section 179 each year after you apply the limits listed above cannot be more than the taxable income from the active conduct of any trade or business during the year.

If you are married and file a joint return, you and your spouse are treated as one taxpayer in determining any reduction to the dollar limit, regardless of which of you purchased the property or placed it in service.

If you and your spouse file separate returns, you are treated as one taxpayer for the dollar limit. You must allocate the dollar limit (after any reduction) between you.

For more information on the above section 179 deduction limits, see Pub. 946, How To Depreciate Property.

You cannot elect to deduct more than $28,900 of the cost of any heavy sport utility vehicle (SUV) and certain other vehicles placed in service during the tax years beginning in 2023. This rule applies to any four-wheeled vehicle primarily designed or used to carry passengers over public streets, roads, or highways that isn’t subject to any of the passenger automobile limits explained under Depreciation Limits , later, and that is rated at more than 6,000 pounds gross vehicle weight and not more than 14,000 pounds gross vehicle weight. However, the $28,900 limit doesn’t apply to any vehicle:

Designed to have a seating capacity of more than nine persons behind the driver's seat;

Equipped with a cargo area of at least 6 feet in interior length that is an open area or is designed for use as an open area but is enclosed by a cap and isn’t readily accessible directly from the passenger compartment; or

That has an integral enclosure, fully enclosing the driver compartment and load carrying device, doesn’t have seating rearward of the driver's seat, and has no body section protruding more than 30 inches ahead of the leading edge of the windshield.

The first-year limit on the depreciation deduction, special depreciation allowance, and section 179 deduction for vehicles acquired before September 28, 2017, and placed in service during 2023, is $12,200. The first-year limit on depreciation, special depreciation allowance, and section 179 deduction for vehicles acquired after September 27, 2017, and placed in service during 2023 increases to $20,200. If you elect not to claim a special depreciation allowance for a vehicle placed in service in 2023, the amount increases to $12,200. The limit is reduced if your business use of the vehicle is less than 100%. See Depreciation Limits , later, for more information.

In the earlier example under More than 50% business use requirement , you had a car with a cost (for purposes of the section 179 deduction) of $14,700. However, based on your business usage of the car, the total of your section 179 deduction, special depreciation allowance, and depreciation deductions is limited to $12,120 ($20,200 limit x 60% (0.60) business use) because the car was acquired after September 27, 2017, and placed in service during 2023.

For purposes of the section 179 deduction, the cost of the car doesn’t include any amount figured by reference to any other property held by you at any time. For example, if you buy a car as a replacement for a car that was stolen or that was destroyed in a casualty loss, and you use section 1033 to determine the basis in your replacement vehicle, your cost for purposes of the section 179 deduction doesn’t include your adjusted basis in the relinquished car. In that case, your cost includes only the cash you paid.

The amount of the section 179 deduction reduces your basis in your car. If you choose the section 179 deduction, you must subtract the amount of the deduction from the cost of your car. The resulting amount is the basis in your car you use to figure your depreciation deduction.

If you want to take the section 179 deduction, you must make the election in the tax year you place the car in service for business or work.

Employees use Form 2106, Employee Business Expenses, to make the election and report the section 179 deduction. All others use Form 4562, Depreciation and Amortization, to make an election.

File the appropriate form with either of the following.

Your original tax return filed for the year the property was placed in service (whether or not you file it timely).

An amended return filed within the time prescribed by law. An election made on an amended return must specify the item of section 179 property to which the election applies and the part of the cost of each such item to be taken into account. The amended return must also include any resulting adjustments to taxable income.

An election (or any specification made in the election) to take a section 179 deduction for 2023 can only be revoked with the Commissioner's approval.

To be eligible to claim the section 179 deduction, you must use your car more than 50% for business or work in the year you acquired it. If your business use of the car is 50% or less in a later tax year during the recovery period, you have to recapture (include in income) in that later year any excess depreciation. Any section 179 deduction claimed on the car is included in figuring the excess depreciation. For information on this calculation, see Excess depreciation , later in this chapter under Car Used 50% or Less for Business. For more information on recapture of a section 179 deduction, see Pub. 946.

If you dispose of a car on which you had claimed the section 179 deduction, the amount of that deduction is treated as a depreciation deduction for recapture purposes. You treat any gain on the disposition of the property as ordinary income up to the amount of the section 179 deduction and any allowable depreciation (unless you establish the amount actually allowed). For information on the disposition of a car, see Disposition of a Car , later. For more information on recapture of a section 179 deduction, see Pub. 946.

Special Depreciation Allowance

You may be able to claim the special depreciation allowance for your car, truck, or van if it is qualified property and was placed in service in 2023. The allowance for 2023 is an additional depreciation deduction for 100% of the car's depreciable basis (after any section 179 deduction, but before figuring your regular depreciation deduction under MACRS) if the vehicle was acquired after September 27, 2017, and placed in service during 2023. Further, while it applies to a new vehicle, it also applies to a used vehicle only if the vehicle meets the used property requirements. For more information on the used property requirements, see section 168(k)(2)(E)(ii). To qualify for the allowance, more than 50% of the use of the car must be in a qualified business use (as defined under Depreciation Deduction , later).

The first-year limit on the depreciation deduction, special depreciation allowance, and section 179 deduction for vehicles acquired before September 28, 2017, and placed in service during 2023, is $12,200. Your combined section 179 depreciation, special depreciation allowance, and regular MACRS depreciation deduction is limited to the maximum allowable depreciation deduction for vehicles acquired after September 27, 2017, and placed in service during 2023 is $20,200. If you elect not to claim a special depreciation allowance for a vehicle placed in service in 2023, the amount is $12,200. See Depreciation Limits , later in this chapter.

To be qualified property, the car (including the truck or van) must meet all of the following tests.

You acquired the car after September 27, 2017, but only if no written binding contract to acquire the car existed before September 28, 2017.

You acquired the car new or used.

You placed the car in service in your trade or business before January 1, 2027.

You used the car more than 50% in a qualified business use during the tax year.

You can elect not to claim the special depreciation allowance for your car, truck, or van that is qualified property. If you make this election, it applies to all 5-year property placed in service during the year.

To make this election, attach a statement to your timely filed return (including extensions) indicating the class of property (5-year for cars) for which you are making the election and that you are electing not to claim the special depreciation allowance for qualified property in that class of property.

Depreciation Deduction

If you use actual car expenses to figure your deduction for a car you own and use in your business, you can claim a depreciation deduction. This means you can deduct a certain amount each year as a recovery of your cost or other basis in your car.

You generally need to know the following things about the car you intend to depreciate.

Your basis in the car.

The date you place the car in service.

The method of depreciation and recovery period you will use.

Your basis in a car for figuring depreciation is generally its cost. This includes any amount you borrow or pay in cash, other property, or services.

Generally, you figure depreciation on your car, truck, or van using your unadjusted basis (see Unadjusted basis , later). However, in some situations, you will use your adjusted basis (your basis reduced by depreciation allowed or allowable in earlier years). For one of these situations, see Exception under Methods of depreciation , later.

If you change the use of a car from personal to business, your basis for depreciation is the lesser of the fair market value or your adjusted basis in the car on the date of conversion. Additional rules concerning basis are discussed later in this chapter under Unadjusted basis .

You generally place a car in service when it is available for use in your work or business, in an income-producing activity, or in a personal activity. Depreciation begins when the car is placed in service for use in your work or business or for the production of income.

For purposes of figuring depreciation, if you first start using the car only for personal use and later convert it to business use, you place the car in service on the date of conversion.

If you place a car in service and dispose of it in the same tax year, you can’t claim any depreciation deduction for that car.

Generally, you figure depreciation on cars using the Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery (MACRS) discussed later in this chapter.

If you used the standard mileage rate in the first year of business use and change to the actual expenses method in a later year, you can’t depreciate your car under the MACRS rules. You must use straight line depreciation over the estimated remaining useful life of the car. The amount you depreciate can’t be more than the depreciation limit that applies for that year. See Depreciation Limits , later.

To figure depreciation under the straight line method, you must reduce your basis in the car (but not below zero) by a set rate per mile for all miles for which you used the standard mileage rate. The rate per mile varies depending on the year(s) you used the standard mileage rate. For the rate(s) to use, see Depreciation adjustment when you used the standard mileage rate under Disposition of a Car , later.

This reduction of basis is in addition to those basis adjustments described later under Unadjusted basis . You must use your adjusted basis in your car to figure your depreciation deduction. For additional information on the straight line method of depreciation, see Pub. 946.

Generally, you must use your car more than 50% for qualified business use (defined next) during the year to use MACRS. You must meet this more-than-50%-use test each year of the recovery period (6 years under MACRS) for your car.

If your business use is 50% or less, you must use the straight line method to depreciate your car. This is explained later under Car Used 50% or Less for Business .

A qualified business use is any use in your trade or business. It doesn’t include use for the production of income (investment use), or use provided under lease to, or as compensation to, a 5% owner or related person. However, you do combine your business and investment use to figure your depreciation deduction for the tax year.

Don’t treat any use of your car by another person as use in your trade or business unless that use meets one of the following conditions.

It is directly connected with your business.

It is properly reported by you as income to the other person (and, if you have to, you withhold tax on the income).

It results in a payment of fair market rent. This includes any payment to you for the use of your car.

If you used your car more than 50% in qualified business use in the year you placed it in service, but 50% or less in a later year (including the year of disposition), you have to change to the straight line method of depreciation. See Qualified business use 50% or less in a later year under Car Used 50% or Less for Business , later.

If you use your car for more than one purpose during the tax year, you must allocate the use to the various purposes. You do this on the basis of mileage. Figure the percentage of qualified business use by dividing the number of miles you drive your car for business purposes during the year by the total number of miles you drive the car during the year for any purpose.

If you change the use of a car from 100% personal use to business use during the tax year, you may not have mileage records for the time before the change to business use. In this case, you figure the percentage of business use for the year as follows.

Determine the percentage of business use for the period following the change. Do this by dividing business miles by total miles driven during that period.

Multiply the percentage in (1) by a fraction. The numerator (top number) is the number of months the car is used for business, and the denominator (bottom number) is 12.

You use a car only for personal purposes during the first 6 months of the year. During the last 6 months of the year, you drive the car a total of 15,000 miles of which 12,000 miles are for business. This gives you a business use percentage of 80% (12,000 ÷ 15,000) for that period. Your business use for the year is 40% (80% (0.80) × 6 / 12 ).

The amount you can claim for section 179, special depreciation allowance, and depreciation deductions may be limited. The maximum amount you can claim depends on the year in which you placed your car in service. You have to reduce the maximum amount if you did not use the car exclusively for business. See Depreciation Limits , later.

You use your unadjusted basis (often referred to as your basis or your basis for depreciation) to figure your depreciation using the MACRS depreciation chart, explained later under Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) . Your unadjusted basis for figuring depreciation is your original basis increased or decreased by certain amounts.

To figure your unadjusted basis, begin with your car's original basis, which is generally its cost. Cost includes sales taxes (see Sales taxes , earlier), destination charges, and dealer preparation. Increase your basis by any substantial improvements you make to your car, such as adding air conditioning or a new engine. Decrease your basis by any section 179 deduction, special depreciation allowance, gas guzzler tax, and vehicle credits claimed. See Pub. 551, Basis of Assets, for further details.

If you acquired the car by gift or inheritance, see Pub. 551, Basis of Assets, for information on your basis in the car.

A major improvement to a car is treated as a new item of 5-year recovery property. It is treated as placed in service in the year the improvement is made. It doesn’t matter how old the car is when the improvement is added. Follow the same steps for depreciating the improvement as you would for depreciating the original cost of the car. However, you must treat the improvement and the car as a whole when applying the limits on the depreciation deductions. Your car's depreciation deduction for the year (plus any section 179 deduction, special depreciation allowance, and depreciation on any improvements) can’t be more than the depreciation limit that applies for that year. See Depreciation Limits , later.

If you traded one car (the “old car”) for another car (the “new car”) in 2023, you must treat the transaction as a disposition of the old car and the purchase of the new car. You must treat the old car as disposed of at the time of the trade-in. The depreciable basis of the new car is the adjusted basis of the old car (figured as if 100% of the car’s use had been for business purposes) plus any additional amount you paid for the new car. You then figure your depreciation deduction for the new car beginning with the date you placed it in service. You must also complete Form 2106, Part II, Section D. This method is explained later, beginning at Effect of trade-in on basis .

The discussion that follows applies to trade-ins of cars in 2023, where the election was made to treat the transaction as a disposition of the old car and the purchase of the new car. For information on how to figure depreciation for cars involved in a like-kind exchange (trade-in) in 2023, for which the election wasn’t made, see Pub. 946 and Regulations section 1.168(i)-6(d)(3).

Like‐kind exchanges completed after December 31, 2017, are generally limited to exchanges of real property not held primarily for sale. Regulations section 1.168(i)-6 doesn't reflect this change in law.

If you trade in a car you used only in your business for another car that will be used only in your business, your original basis in the new car is your adjusted basis in the old car, plus any additional amount you pay for the new car.

You trade in a car that has an adjusted basis of $5,000 for a new car. In addition, you pay cash of $20,000 for the new car. Your original basis of the new car is $25,000 (your $5,000 adjusted basis in the old car plus the $20,000 cash paid). Your unadjusted basis is $25,000 unless you claim the section 179 deduction, special depreciation allowance, or have other increases or decreases to your original basis, discussed under Unadjusted basis , earlier.

If you trade in a car you used partly in your business for a new car you will use in your business, you must make a “trade-in” adjustment for the personal use of the old car. This adjustment has the effect of reducing your basis in your old car, but not below zero, for purposes of figuring your depreciation deduction for the new car. (This adjustment isn’t used, however, when you determine the gain or loss on the later disposition of the new car. See Pub. 544, Sales and Other Dispositions of Assets, for information on how to report the disposition of your car.)

To figure the unadjusted basis of your new car for depreciation, first add to your adjusted basis in the old car any additional amount you pay for the new car. Then subtract from that total the excess, if any, of:

The total of the amounts that would have been allowable as depreciation during the tax years before the trade if 100% of the use of the car had been business and investment use, over

The total of the amounts actually allowed as depreciation during those years.

MACRS is the name given to the tax rules for getting back (recovering) through depreciation deductions the cost of property used in a trade or business or to produce income.

The maximum amount you can deduct is limited, depending on the year you placed your car in service. See Depreciation Limits , later.

Under MACRS, cars are classified as 5-year property. You actually depreciate the cost of a car, truck, or van over a period of 6 calendar years. This is because your car is generally treated as placed in service in the middle of the year, and you claim depreciation for one-half of both the first year and the sixth year.

For more information on the qualifications for this shorter recovery period and the percentages to use in figuring the depreciation deduction, see chapter 4 of Pub. 946.

You can use one of the following methods to depreciate your car.

The 200% declining balance method (200% DB) over a 5-year recovery period that switches to the straight line method when that method provides an equal or greater deduction.

The 150% declining balance method (150% DB) over a 5-year recovery period that switches to the straight line method when that method provides an equal or greater deduction.

The straight line method (SL) over a 5-year recovery period.

Before choosing a method, you may wish to consider the following facts.

Using the straight line method provides equal yearly deductions throughout the recovery period.

Using the declining balance methods provides greater deductions during the earlier recovery years with the deductions generally getting smaller each year.

A 2023 MACRS Depreciation Chart and instructions are included in this chapter as Table 4-1 . Using this table will make it easy for you to figure the 2023 depreciation deduction for your car. A similar chart appears in the Instructions for Form 2106.

You must use the Depreciation Tables in Pub. 946 rather than the 2023 MACRS Depreciation Chart in this publication if any one of the following three conditions applies to you.

You file your return on a fiscal year basis.

You file your return for a short tax year (less than 12 months).

During the year, all of the following conditions apply.

You placed some property in service from January through September.

You placed some property in service from October through December.

Your basis in the property you placed in service from October through December (excluding nonresidential real property, residential rental property, and property placed in service and disposed of in the same year) was more than 40% of your total bases in all property you placed in service during the year.

If you use the percentages from the chart, you generally must continue to use them for the entire recovery period of your car. However, you can’t continue to use the chart if your basis in your car is adjusted because of a casualty. In that case, for the year of the adjustment and the remaining recovery period, figure the depreciation without the chart using your adjusted basis in the car at the end of the year of the adjustment and over the remaining recovery period. See Figuring the Deduction Without Using the Tables in chapter 4 of Pub. 946.

If you dispose of the car before the last year of the recovery period, you are generally allowed a half-year of depreciation in the year of disposition. This rule applies unless the mid-quarter convention applies to the vehicle being disposed of. See Depreciation deduction for the year of disposition under Disposition of a Car , later, for information on how to figure the depreciation allowed in the year of disposition.

To figure your depreciation deduction for 2023, find the percentage in the column of Table 4-1 based on the date that you first placed the car in service and the depreciation method that you are using. Multiply the unadjusted basis of your car (defined earlier) by that percentage to determine the amount of your depreciation deduction. If you prefer to figure your depreciation deduction without the help of the chart, see Pub. 946.

You bought a used truck in February 2022 to use exclusively in your landscape business. You paid $9,200 for the truck with no trade-in. You didn’t claim any section 179 deduction, the truck didn’t qualify for the special depreciation allowance, and you chose to use the 200% DB method to get the largest depreciation deduction in the early years.

You used the MACRS Depreciation Chart in 2022 to find your percentage. The unadjusted basis of the truck equals its cost because you used it exclusively for business. You multiplied the unadjusted basis of the truck, $9,200, by the percentage that applied, 20%, to figure your 2022 depreciation deduction of $1,840.

In 2023, you used the truck for personal purposes when you repaired your parent’s cabin. Your records show that the business use of the truck was 90% in 2023. You used Table 4-1 to find your percentage. Reading down the first column for the date placed in service and across to the 200% DB column, you locate your percentage, 32%. You multiply the unadjusted basis of the truck, $8,280 ($9,200 cost × 90% (0.90) business use), by 32% (0.32) to figure your 2023 depreciation deduction of $2,650.

Depreciation Limits

There are limits on the amount you can deduct for depreciation of your car, truck, or van. The section 179 deduction and special depreciation allowance are treated as depreciation for purposes of the limits. The maximum amount you can deduct each year depends on the date you acquired the passenger automobile and the year you place the passenger automobile in service. These limits are shown in the following tables for 2023.

Maximum Depreciation Deduction for Passenger Automobiles (Including Trucks and Vans) Acquired Before September 28, 2017, and Placed in Service During 2018–2023

Maximum depreciation deduction for passenger automobiles (including trucks and vans) acquired after september 27, 2017, and placed in service during 2018 or later.

The maximum amount you can deduct each year depends on the year you place the car in service. These limits are shown in the following tables for prior years.

Maximum Depreciation Deduction for Cars Placed in Service Prior to 2018

For tax years prior to 2018, the maximum depreciation deductions for trucks and vans are generally higher than those for cars. A truck or van is a passenger automobile that is classified by the manufacturer as a truck or van and rated at 6,000 pounds gross vehicle weight or less.

Maximum Depreciation Deduction for Trucks and Vans Placed in Service Prior to 2018

The depreciation limits aren’t reduced if you use a car for less than a full year. This means that you don’t reduce the limit when you either place a car in service or dispose of a car during the year. However, the depreciation limits are reduced if you don’t use the car exclusively for business and investment purposes. See Reduction for personal use next.

The depreciation limits are reduced based on your percentage of personal use. If you use a car less than 100% in your business or work, you must determine the depreciation deduction limit by multiplying the limit amount by the percentage of business and investment use during the tax year.

The section 179 deduction is treated as a depreciation deduction. If you acquired a passenger automobile (including trucks and vans) after September 27, 2017, and placed it in service in 2023, use it only for business, and choose the section 179 deduction, the special depreciation allowance and depreciation deduction for that vehicle for 2023 is limited to $20,200.

On September 4, 2023, you bought and placed in service a used car for $15,000. You used it 80% for your business, and you choose to take a section 179 deduction for the car. The car isn’t qualified property for purposes of the special depreciation allowance.

Before applying the limit, you figure your maximum section 179 deduction to be $12,000. This is the cost of your qualifying property (up to the maximum $1,160,000 amount) multiplied by your business use ($15,000 × 80% (0.80)).

You then figure that your section 179 deduction for 2023 is limited to $9,760 (80% of $12,200). You then figure your unadjusted basis of $2,440 (($15,000 × 80% (0.80)) − $9,760) for determining your depreciation deduction. You have reached your maximum depreciation deduction for 2023. For 2024, you will use your unadjusted basis of $2,440 to figure your depreciation deduction.

If the depreciation deductions for your car are reduced under the passenger automobile limits (discussed earlier), you will have unrecovered basis in your car at the end of the recovery period. If you continue to use your car for business, you can deduct that unrecovered basis (subject to depreciation limits) after the recovery period ends.

This is your cost or other basis in the car reduced by any clean-fuel vehicle deduction (for vehicles placed in service before January 1, 2006), alternative motor vehicle credit, electric vehicle credit, gas guzzler tax, and depreciation (including any special depreciation allowance , discussed earlier, unless you elect not to claim it) and section 179 deductions that would have been allowable if you had used the car 100% for business and investment use.

For 5-year property, your recovery period is 6 calendar years. A part year's depreciation is allowed in the first calendar year, a full year's depreciation is allowed in each of the next 4 calendar years, and a part year's depreciation is allowed in the 6th calendar year.

Under MACRS, your recovery period is the same whether you use declining balance or straight line depreciation. You determine your unrecovered basis in the 7th year after you placed the car in service.

If you continue to use your car for business after the recovery period, you can claim a depreciation deduction in each succeeding tax year until you recover your basis in the car. The maximum amount you can deduct each year is determined by the date you placed the car in service and your business-use percentage. For example, no deduction is allowed for a year you use your car 100% for personal purposes.

In April 2017, you bought and placed in service a car you used exclusively in your business. The car cost $31,500. You didn’t claim a section 179 deduction or the special depreciation allowance for the car. You continued to use the car 100% in your business throughout the recovery period (2017 through 2022). For those years, you used the MACRS Depreciation Chart (200% DB method), the Maximum Depreciation Deduction for Cars Placed in Service Prior to 2018 table and Maximum Depreciation Deduction for Passenger Automobiles (Including Trucks and Vans) Acquired Before September 28, 2017, and Placed in Service During 2018–2023 table, earlier, for the applicable tax year to figure your depreciation deductions during the recovery period. Your depreciation deductions were subject to the depreciation limits, so you will have unrecovered basis at the end of the recovery period as shown in the following table.

At the end of 2022, you had an unrecovered basis in the car of $14,626 ($31,500 – $16,874). If you continued to use the car 100% for business in 2023 and later years, you can claim a depreciation deduction equal to the lesser of $1,875 or your remaining unrecovered basis.

If your business use of the car was less than 100% during any year, your depreciation deduction would be less than the maximum amount allowable for that year. However, in determining your unrecovered basis in the car, you would still reduce your original basis by the maximum amount allowable as if the business use had been 100%. For example, if you had used your car 60% for business instead of 100%, your allowable depreciation deductions would have been $10,124 ($16,874 × 60% (0.60)), but you still would have to reduce your basis by $16,874 to determine your unrecovered basis.

Table 4-1. 2023 MACRS Depreciation Chart (Use To Figure Depreciation for 2023)

Car used 50% or less for business.

If you use your car 50% or less for qualified business use (defined earlier under Depreciation Deduction ) either in the year the car is placed in service or in a later year, special rules apply. The rules that apply in these two situations are explained in the following paragraphs. (For this purpose, “car” was defined earlier under Actual Car Expenses and includes certain trucks and vans.)

If you use your car 50% or less for qualified business use, the following rules apply.

You can’t take the section 179 deduction.

You can’t take the special depreciation allowance.

You must figure depreciation using the straight line method over a 5-year recovery period. You must continue to use the straight line method even if your percentage of business use increases to more than 50% in a later year.

Instead of making the computation yourself, you can use column (c) of Table 4-1 to find the percentage to use.

In May 2023, you bought and placed in service a car for $17,500. You used it 40% for your consulting business. Because you didn’t use the car more than 50% for business, you can’t take any section 179 deduction or special depreciation allowance, and you must use the straight line method over a 5-year recovery period to recover the cost of your car.

You deduct $700 in 2023. This is the lesser of:

$700 (($17,500 cost × 40% (0.40) business use) × 10% (0.10) recovery percentage (from column (c) of Table 4-1 )), or

$4,880 ($12,200 maximum limit × 40% (0.40) business use).

If you use your car more than 50% in qualified business use in the tax year it is placed in service but the business use drops to 50% or less in a later year, you can no longer use an accelerated depreciation method for that car.

For the year the business use drops to 50% or less and all later years in the recovery period, you must use the straight line depreciation method over a 5-year recovery period. In addition, for the year your business use drops to 50% or less, you must recapture (include in your gross income) any excess depreciation (discussed later). You also increase the adjusted basis of your car by the same amount.

In June 2020, you purchased a car for exclusive use in your business. You met the more-than-50%-use test for the first 3 years of the recovery period (2020 through 2022) but failed to meet it in the fourth year (2023). You determine your depreciation for 2023 using 20% (from column (c) of Table 4-1 ). You will also have to determine and include in your gross income any excess depreciation, discussed next.

You must include any excess depreciation in your gross income and add it to your car's adjusted basis for the first tax year in which you don’t use the car more than 50% in qualified business use. Use Form 4797, Sales of Business Property, to figure and report the excess depreciation in your gross income.

Excess depreciation is:

The amount of the depreciation deductions allowable for the car (including any section 179 deduction claimed and any special depreciation allowance claimed) for tax years in which you used the car more than 50% in qualified business use, minus

The amount of the depreciation deductions that would have been allowable for those years if you hadn’t used the car more than 50% in qualified business use for the year you placed it in service. This means the amount of depreciation figured using the straight line method.

In September 2019, you bought a car for $20,500 and placed it in service. You didn’t claim the section 179 deduction or the special depreciation allowance. You used the car exclusively in qualified business use for 2019, 2020, 2021, and 2022. For those years, you used the appropriate MACRS Depreciation Chart to figure depreciation deductions totaling $13,185 ($3,160 for 2019, $5,100 for 2020, $3,050 for 2021, and $1,875 for 2022) under the 200% DB method.

During 2023, you used the car 30% for business and 70% for personal purposes. Since you didn’t meet the more-than-50%-use test, you must switch from the 200% DB depreciation method to the straight line depreciation method for 2023, and include in gross income for 2023 your excess depreciation determined as follows.

In 2023, using Form 4797, you figure and report the $2,110 excess depreciation you must include in your gross income. Your adjusted basis in the car is also increased by $2,110. Your 2023 depreciation is $1,230 ($20,500 (unadjusted basis) × 30% (0.30) (business-use percentage) × 20% (0.20) (from column (c) of Table 4-1 on the line for Jan. 1–Sept. 30, 2019)). However, your depreciation deduction is limited to $563 ($1,875 x 30% (0.30) business use).

Leasing a Car

If you lease a car, truck, or van that you use in your business, you can use the standard mileage rate or actual expenses to figure your deductible expense. This section explains how to figure actual expenses for a leased car, truck, or van.

If you choose to use actual expenses, you can deduct the part of each lease payment that is for the use of the vehicle in your business. You can’t deduct any part of a lease payment that is for personal use of the vehicle, such as commuting.

You must spread any advance payments over the entire lease period. You can’t deduct any payments you make to buy a car, truck, or van even if the payments are called “lease payments.”

If you lease a car, truck, or van for 30 days or more, you may have to reduce your lease payment deduction by an “inclusion amount,” explained next.

Inclusion Amounts

If you lease a car, truck, or van that you use in your business for a lease term of 30 days or more, you may have to include an inclusion amount in your income for each tax year you lease the vehicle. To do this, you don’t add an amount to income. Instead, you reduce your deduction for your lease payment. (This reduction has an effect similar to the limit on the depreciation deduction you would have on the vehicle if you owned it.)

The inclusion amount is a percentage of part of the fair market value of the leased vehicle multiplied by the percentage of business and investment use of the vehicle for the tax year. It is prorated for the number of days of the lease term in the tax year.

The inclusion amount applies to each tax year that you lease the vehicle if the fair market value (defined next) when the lease began was more than the amounts shown in the following tables.

All vehicles are subject to a single inclusion amount threshold for passenger automobiles leased and put into service in 2023. You may have an inclusion amount for a passenger automobile if:

Passenger Automobiles (Including Trucks and Vans)

For years prior to 2018, see the inclusion tables below. You may have an inclusion amount for a passenger automobile if:

Cars (Except for Trucks and Vans)

Trucks and Vans

Fair market value is the price at which the property would change hands between a willing buyer and seller, neither having to buy or sell, and both having reasonable knowledge of all the necessary facts. Sales of similar property around the same date may be helpful in figuring the fair market value of the property.

Figure the fair market value on the first day of the lease term. If the capitalized cost of a car is specified in the lease agreement, use that amount as the fair market value.

Inclusion amounts for tax years 2018–2023 are listed in Appendices A-1 through A-6 for passenger vehicles (including trucks and vans). If the fair market value of the vehicle is $100,000 or less, use the appropriate appendix (depending on the year you first placed the vehicle in service) to determine the inclusion amount. If the fair market value is more than $100,000, see the revenue procedure(s) identified in the footnote of that year’s appendix for the inclusion amount.

For each tax year during which you lease the car for business, determine your inclusion amount by following these three steps.

Locate the appendix that applies to you. To find the inclusion amount, do the following.

Find the line that includes the fair market value of the car on the first day of the lease term.

Go across the line to the column for the tax year in which the car is used under the lease to find the dollar amount. For the last tax year of the lease, use the dollar amount for the preceding year.

Prorate the dollar amount from (1b) for the number of days of the lease term included in the tax year.

Multiply the prorated amount from (2) by the percentage of business and investment use for the tax year. This is your inclusion amount.

On January 17, 2023, you leased a car for 3 years and placed it in service for use in your business. The car had a fair market value of $62,500 on the first day of the lease term. You use the car 75% for business and 25% for personal purposes during each year of the lease. Assuming you continue to use the car 75% for business, you use Appendix A-6 to arrive at the following inclusion amounts for each year of the lease. For the last tax year of the lease, 2026, you use the amount for the preceding year.

2024 is a leap year and includes an extra calendar day, February 29, 2024.

For each year of the lease that you deduct lease payments, you must reduce your deduction by the inclusion amount figured for that year.

If you lease a car for business use and, in a later year, change it to personal use, follow the rules explained earlier under Figuring the inclusion amount . For the tax year in which you stop using the car for business, use the dollar amount for the previous tax year. Prorate the dollar amount for the number of days in the lease term that fall within the tax year.

On August 16, 2022, you leased a car with a fair market value of $64,500 for 3 years. You used the car exclusively in your data processing business. On November 6, 2023, you closed your business and went to work for a company where you aren’t required to use a car for business. Using Appendix A-5 , you figured your inclusion amount for 2022 and 2023 as shown in the following table and reduced your deductions for lease payments by those amounts.

If you lease a car for personal use and, in a later year, change it to business use, you must determine the car's fair market value on the date of conversion. Then figure the inclusion amount using the rules explained earlier under Figuring the inclusion amount . Use the fair market value on the date of conversion.

In March 2021, you leased a truck for 4 years for personal use. On June 1, 2023, you started working as a self-employed advertising consultant and started using the leased truck for business purposes. Your records show that your business use for June 1 through December 31 was 60%. To figure your inclusion amount for 2023, you obtained an appraisal from an independent car leasing company that showed the fair market value of your 2021 truck on June 1, 2023, was $62,650. Using Appendix A-6 , you figured your inclusion amount for 2023 as shown in the following table.

For information on reporting inclusion amounts, employees should see Car rentals under Completing Forms 2106 in chapter 6. Sole proprietors should see the Instructions for Schedule C (Form 1040), and farmers should see the Instructions for Schedule F (Form 1040).

Disposition of a Car

If you dispose of your car, you may have a taxable gain or a deductible loss. The portion of any gain that is due to depreciation (including any section 179 deduction, clean-fuel vehicle deduction (for vehicles placed in service before January 1, 2006), and special depreciation allowance) that you claimed on the car will be treated as ordinary income. However, you may not have to recognize a gain or loss if you dispose of the car because of a casualty or theft.

This section gives some general information about dispositions of cars. For information on how to report the disposition of your car, see Pub. 544.

Like‐kind exchanges completed after December 31, 2017, are generally limited to exchanges of real property not held primarily for sale.

For a casualty or theft, a gain results when you receive insurance or other reimbursement that is more than your adjusted basis in your car. If you then spend all of the proceeds to acquire replacement property (a new car or repairs to the old car) within a specified period of time, you don’t recognize any gain. Your basis in the replacement property is its cost minus any gain that isn’t recognized. See Pub. 547 for more information.

When you trade in an old car for a new one, the transaction is considered a like-kind exchange. Generally, no gain or loss is recognized. (For exceptions, see chapter 1 of Pub. 544.) In a trade-in situation, your basis in the new property is generally your adjusted basis in the old property plus any additional amount you pay. (See Unadjusted basis , earlier.)

If you used the standard mileage rate for the business use of your car, depreciation was included in that rate. The rate of depreciation that was allowed in the standard mileage rate is shown in the Rate of Depreciation Allowed in Standard Mileage Rate table, later. You must reduce your basis in your car (but not below zero) by the amount of this depreciation.

If your basis is reduced to zero (but not below zero) through the use of the standard mileage rate, and you continue to use your car for business, no adjustment (reduction) to the standard mileage rate is necessary. Use the full standard mileage rate (65.5 cents ($0.655) per mile from January 1–December 31 for 2023) for business miles driven.

Rate of Depreciation Allowed in Standard Mileage Rate

In 2018, you bought and placed in service a car for exclusive use in your business. The car cost $25,500. From 2018 through 2023, you used the standard mileage rate to figure your car expense deduction. You drove your car 14,100 miles in 2018, 16,300 miles in 2019, 15,600 miles in 2020, 16,700 miles in 2021, 15,100 miles in 2022, and 14,900 miles in 2023. The depreciation portion of your car expense deduction is figured as follows.

If you deduct actual car expenses and you dispose of your car before the end of the recovery period (years 2 through 5), you are allowed a reduced depreciation deduction in the year of disposition.

Use the depreciation tables in Pub. 946 to figure the reduced depreciation deduction for a car disposed of in 2023.

The depreciation amounts computed using the depreciation tables in Pub. 946 for years 2 through 5 that you own your car are for a full year’s depreciation. Years 1 and 6 apply the half-year or mid-quarter convention to the computation for you. If you dispose of the vehicle in years 2 through 5 and the half-year convention applies, then the full year’s depreciation amount must be divided by 2. If the mid-quarter convention applies, multiply the full year’s depreciation by the percentage from the following table for the quarter that you disposed of the car.

If the car is subject to the Depreciation Limits , discussed earlier, reduce (but do not increase) the computed depreciation to this amount. See Sale or Other Disposition Before the Recovery Period Ends in chapter 4 of Pub. 946 for more information.

5. Recordkeeping

If you deduct travel, gift, or transportation expenses, you must be able to prove (substantiate) certain elements of expense. This chapter discusses the records you need to keep to prove these expenses.

How To Prove Expenses

Table 5-1 is a summary of records you need to prove each expense discussed in this publication. You must be able to prove the elements listed across the top portion of the chart. You prove them by having the information and receipts (where needed) for the expenses listed in the first column.

You should keep adequate records to prove your expenses or have sufficient evidence that will support your own statement. You must generally prepare a written record for it to be considered adequate. This is because written evidence is more reliable than oral evidence alone. However, if you prepare a record on a computer, it is considered an adequate record.

What Are Adequate Records?

You should keep the proof you need in an account book, diary, log, statement of expense, trip sheets, or similar record. You should also keep documentary evidence that, together with your record, will support each element of an expense.

You must generally have documentary evidence such as receipts, canceled checks, or bills, to support your expenses.

Documentary evidence isn’t needed if any of the following conditions apply.

You have meals or lodging expenses while traveling away from home for which you account to your employer under an accountable plan, and you use a per diem allowance method that includes meals and/or lodging. ( Accountable plans and per diem allowances are discussed in chapter 6.)

Your expense, other than lodging, is less than $75.

You have a transportation expense for which a receipt isn’t readily available.

Documentary evidence will ordinarily be considered adequate if it shows the amount, date, place, and essential character of the expense.

For example, a hotel receipt is enough to support expenses for business travel if it has all of the following information.

The name and location of the hotel.

The dates you stayed there.

Separate amounts for charges such as lodging, meals, and telephone calls.

A restaurant receipt is enough to prove an expense for a business meal if it has all of the following information.

The name and location of the restaurant.

The number of people served.

The date and amount of the expense.

A canceled check, together with a bill from the payee, ordinarily establishes the cost. However, a canceled check by itself doesn’t prove a business expense without other evidence to show that it was for a business purpose.

You don‘t have to record information in your account book or other record that duplicates information shown on a receipt as long as your records and receipts complement each other in an orderly manner.

You don’t have to record amounts your employer pays directly for any ticket or other travel item. However, if you charge these items to your employer, through a credit card or otherwise, you must keep a record of the amounts you spend.

You should record the elements of an expense or of a business use at or near the time of the expense or use and support it with sufficient documentary evidence. A timely kept record has more value than a statement prepared later when there is generally a lack of accurate recall.

You don’t need to write down the elements of every expense on the day of the expense. If you maintain a log on a weekly basis that accounts for use during the week, the log is considered a timely kept record.

If you give your employer, client, or customer an expense account statement, it can also be considered a timely kept record. This is true if you copy it from your account book, diary, log, statement of expense, trip sheets, or similar record.

You must generally provide a written statement of the business purpose of an expense. However, the degree of proof varies according to the circumstances in each case. If the business purpose of an expense is clear from the surrounding circumstances, then you don’t need to give a written explanation.

If you are a sales representative who calls on customers on an established sales route, you don’t have to give a written explanation of the business purpose for traveling that route. You can satisfy the requirements by recording the length of the delivery route once, the date of each trip at or near the time of the trips, and the total miles you drove the car during the tax year. You could also establish the date of each trip with a receipt, record of delivery, or other documentary evidence.

You don’t need to put confidential information relating to an element of a deductible expense (such as the place, business purpose, or business relationship) in your account book, diary, or other record. However, you do have to record the information elsewhere at or near the time of the expense and have it available to fully prove that element of the expense.

What if I Have Incomplete Records?

If you don’t have complete records to prove an element of an expense, then you must prove the element with:

Your own written or oral statement containing specific information about the element, and

Other supporting evidence that is sufficient to establish the element.

If the element is the description of a gift, or the cost, time, place, or date of an expense, the supporting evidence must be either direct evidence or documentary evidence. Direct evidence can be written statements or the oral testimony of your guests or other witnesses setting forth detailed information about the element. Documentary evidence can be receipts, paid bills, or similar evidence.

If the element is either the business relationship of your guests or the business purpose of the amount spent, the supporting evidence can be circumstantial rather than direct. For example, the nature of your work, such as making deliveries, provides circumstantial evidence of the use of your car for business purposes. Invoices of deliveries establish when you used the car for business.

Table 5-1. How To Prove Certain Business Expenses

You can keep an adequate record for parts of a tax year and use that record to prove the amount of business or investment use for the entire year. You must demonstrate by other evidence that the periods for which an adequate record is kept are representative of the use throughout the tax year.

You use your car to visit the offices of clients, meet with suppliers and other subcontractors, and pick up and deliver items to clients. There is no other business use of the car, but you and your family use the car for personal purposes. You keep adequate records during the first week of each month that show that 75% of the use of the car is for business. Invoices and bills show that your business use continues at the same rate during the later weeks of each month. Your weekly records are representative of the use of the car each month and are sufficient evidence to support the percentage of business use for the year.

You can satisfy the substantiation requirements with other evidence if, because of the nature of the situation in which an expense is made, you can’t get a receipt. This applies if all the following are true.

You were unable to obtain evidence for an element of the expense or use that completely satisfies the requirements explained earlier under What Are Adequate Records .

You are unable to obtain evidence for an element that completely satisfies the two rules listed earlier under What if I Have Incomplete Records .

You have presented other evidence for the element that is the best proof possible under the circumstances.

If you can’t produce a receipt because of reasons beyond your control, you can prove a deduction by reconstructing your records or expenses. Reasons beyond your control include fire, flood, and other casualties.

Separating and Combining Expenses

This section explains when expenses must be kept separate and when expenses can be combined.

Each separate payment is generally considered a separate expense. For example, if you entertain a customer or client at dinner and then go to the theater, the dinner expense and the cost of the theater tickets are two separate expenses. You must record them separately in your records.

You can make one daily entry in your record for reasonable categories of expenses. Examples are taxi fares, telephone calls, or other incidental travel costs. Nonentertainment meals should be in a separate category. You can include tips for meal-related services with the costs of the meals.

Expenses of a similar nature occurring during the course of a single event are considered a single expense.

You can account for several uses of your car that can be considered part of a single use, such as a round trip or uninterrupted business use, with a single record. Minimal personal use, such as a stop for lunch on the way between two business stops, isn’t an interruption of business use.

You make deliveries at several different locations on a route that begins and ends at your employer's business premises and that includes a stop at the business premises between two deliveries. You can account for these using a single record of miles driven.

You don’t always have to record the name of each recipient of a gift. A general listing will be enough if it is evident that you aren’t trying to avoid the $25 annual limit on the amount you can deduct for gifts to any one person. For example, if you buy a large number of tickets to local high school basketball games and give one or two tickets to each of many customers, it is usually enough to record a general description of the recipients.

If you can prove the total cost of travel or entertainment but you can’t prove how much it costs for each person who participated in the event, you may have to allocate the total cost among you and your guests on a pro rata basis. To do so, you must establish the number of persons who participated in the event.

If your return is examined, you may have to provide additional information to the IRS. This information could be needed to clarify or to establish the accuracy or reliability of information contained in your records, statements, testimony, or documentary evidence before a deduction is allowed.

How Long To Keep Records and Receipts

You must keep records as long as they may be needed for the administration of any provision of the Internal Revenue Code. Generally, this means you must keep records that support your deduction (or an item of income) for 3 years from the date you file the income tax return on which the deduction is claimed. A return filed early is considered filed on the due date. For a more complete explanation of how long to keep records, see Pub. 583, Starting a Business and Keeping Records.

You must keep records of the business use of your car for each year of the recovery period. See More-than-50%-use test in chapter 4 under Depreciation Deduction.

Employees who give their records and documentation to their employers and are reimbursed for their expenses generally don’t have to keep copies of this information. However, you may have to prove your expenses if any of the following conditions apply.

You claim deductions for expenses that are more than reimbursements.

Your expenses are reimbursed under a nonaccountable plan.

Your employer doesn’t use adequate accounting procedures to verify expense accounts.

You are related to your employer as defined under Per Diem and Car Allowances in chapter 6.

Table 5-2 and Table 5-3 are examples of worksheets that can be used for tracking business expenses.

Table 5-2. Daily Business Mileage and Expense Log

Table 5-3. Weekly Traveling Expense Record

6. How To Report

This chapter explains where and how to report the expenses discussed in this publication. It discusses reimbursements and how to treat them under accountable and nonaccountable plans. It also explains rules for independent contractors and clients, fee-basis officials, certain performing artists, Armed Forces reservists, and certain disabled employees. The chapter ends with illustrations of how to report travel, gift, and car expenses on Forms 2106.

Where To Report

This section provides general information on where to report the expenses discussed in this publication.

You must report your income and expenses on Schedule C (Form 1040) if you are a sole proprietor, or on Schedule F (Form 1040) if you are a farmer. You don’t use Form 2106.

If you claim car or truck expenses, you must provide certain information on the use of your vehicle. You provide this information on Schedule C (Form 1040) or Form 4562.

If you file Schedule C (Form 1040):

Report your travel expenses, except meals, on line 24a;

Report your deductible non-entertainment-related meals (actual cost or standard meal allowance) on line 24b;

Report your gift expenses and transportation expenses, other than car expenses, on line 27a; and

Report your car expenses on line 9. Complete Part IV of the form unless you have to file Form 4562 for depreciation or amortization.

If you file Schedule F (Form 1040), do the following.

Report your car expenses on line 10. Attach Form 4562 and provide information on the use of your car in Part V of Form 4562.

Report all other business expenses discussed in this publication on line 32. You can only include 50% of your non-entertainment-related meals on that line.

If you are both self-employed and an employee, you must keep separate records for each business activity. Report your business expenses for self-employment on Schedule C (Form 1040), or Schedule F (Form 1040), as discussed earlier. Report your business expenses for your work as an employee on Form 2106, as discussed next.

If you are an employee, you must generally complete Form 2106 to deduct your travel and transportation expenses.

You are an employee deducting expenses attributable to your job.

You weren’t reimbursed by your employer for your expenses (amounts included in box 1 of your Form W-2 aren’t considered reimbursements).

If you claim car expenses, you use the standard mileage rate.

For more information on how to report your expenses on Form 2106, see Completing Form 2106 , later.

If you didn’t receive any reimbursements (or the reimbursements were all included in box 1 of your Form W-2), the only business expense you are claiming is for gifts, and the special rules discussed later don’t apply to you, don’t complete Form 2106.

If you received a Form W-2 and the “Statutory employee” box in box 13 was checked, report your income and expenses related to that income on Schedule C (Form 1040). Don’t complete Form 2106.

Statutory employees include full-time life insurance salespersons, certain agent or commission drivers, traveling salespersons, and certain homeworkers.

If your employer reimburses you for nondeductible personal expenses, such as for vacation trips, your employer must report the reimbursement as wage income in box 1 of your Form W-2. You can’t deduct personal expenses.

If you have travel or transportation expenses related to income-producing property, report your deductible expenses on the form appropriate for that activity.

For example, if you have rental real estate income and expenses, report your expenses on Schedule E (Form 1040), Supplemental Income and Loss. See Pub. 527, Residential Rental Property, for more information on the rental of real estate.

Vehicle Provided by Your Employer

If your employer provides you with a car, you may be able to deduct the actual expenses of operating that car for business purposes. The amount you can deduct depends on the amount that your employer included in your income and the business and personal miles you drove during the year. You can’t use the standard mileage rate.

Your employer can figure and report either the actual value of your personal use of the car or the value of the car as if you used it only for personal purposes (100% income inclusion). Your employer must separately state the amount if 100% of the annual lease value was included in your income. If you are unsure of the amount included on your Form W-2, ask your employer.

You may be able to deduct the value of the business use of an employer-provided car if your employer reported 100% of the value of the car in your income. On your 2023 Form W-2, the amount of the value will be included in box 1, Wages, tips, other compensation; and box 14, Other.

To claim your expenses, complete Form 2106, Part II, Sections A and C. Enter your actual expenses on line 23 of Section C and include the entire value of the employer-provided car on line 25. Complete the rest of the form.

If less than the full annual lease value of the car was included on your Form W-2, this means that your Form W-2 only includes the value of your personal use of the car. Don’t enter this value on your Form 2106 because it isn’t deductible.

If you paid any actual costs (that your employer didn’t provide or reimburse you for) to operate the car, you can deduct the business portion of those costs. Examples of costs that you may have are gas, oil, and repairs. Complete Form 2106, Part II, Sections A and C. Enter your actual costs on line 23 of Section C and leave line 25 blank. Complete the rest of the form.

Reimbursements

This section explains what to do when you receive an advance or are reimbursed for any of the employee business expenses discussed in this publication.

If you received an advance, allowance, or reimbursement for your expenses, how you report this amount and your expenses depends on whether your employer reimbursed you under an accountable plan or a nonaccountable plan.

This section explains the two types of plans, how per diem and car allowances simplify proving the amount of your expenses, and the tax treatment of your reimbursements and expenses. It also covers rules for independent contractors.

You aren’t reimbursed or given an allowance for your expenses if you are paid a salary or commission with the understanding that you will pay your own expenses. In this situation, you have no reimbursement or allowance arrangement, and you don’t have to read this section on reimbursements. Instead, see Completing Form 2106 , later, for information on completing your tax return.

A reimbursement or other expense allowance arrangement is a system or plan that an employer uses to pay, substantiate, and recover the expenses, advances, reimbursements, and amounts charged to the employer for employee business expenses. Arrangements include per diem and car allowances.

A per diem allowance is a fixed amount of daily reimbursement your employer gives you for your lodging and M&IE when you are away from home on business. (The term “incidental expenses” is defined in chapter 1 under Standard Meal Allowance. ) A car allowance is an amount your employer gives you for the business use of your car.

Your employer should tell you what method of reimbursement is used and what records you must provide.

If you are an employer and you reimburse employee business expenses, how you treat this reimbursement on your employee's Form W-2 depends in part on whether you have an accountable plan. Reimbursements treated as paid under an accountable plan, as explained next, aren’t reported as pay. Reimbursements treated as paid under nonaccountable plans , as explained later, are reported as pay. See Pub. 15 (Circular E), Employer's Tax Guide, for information on employee pay.

Accountable Plans

To be an accountable plan, your employer's reimbursement or allowance arrangement must include all of the following rules.

Your expenses must have a business connection—that is, you must have paid or incurred deductible expenses while performing services as an employee of your employer.

You must adequately account to your employer for these expenses within a reasonable period of time.

You must return any excess reimbursement or allowance within a reasonable period of time.

Adequate accounting and returning excess reimbursements are discussed later.

An excess reimbursement or allowance is any amount you are paid that is more than the business-related expenses that you adequately accounted for to your employer.

The definition of reasonable period of time depends on the facts and circumstances of your situation. However, regardless of the facts and circumstances of your situation, actions that take place within the times specified in the following list will be treated as taking place within a reasonable period of time.

You receive an advance within 30 days of the time you have an expense.

You adequately account for your expenses within 60 days after they were paid or incurred.

You return any excess reimbursement within 120 days after the expense was paid or incurred.

You are given a periodic statement (at least quarterly) that asks you to either return or adequately account for outstanding advances and you comply within 120 days of the statement.

If you meet the three rules for accountable plans, your employer shouldn’t include any reimbursements in your income in box 1 of your Form W-2. If your expenses equal your reimbursements, you don’t complete Form 2106. You have no deduction since your expenses and reimbursements are equal.

Even though you are reimbursed under an accountable plan, some of your expenses may not meet all three rules. All reimbursements that fail to meet all three rules for accountable plans are generally treated as having been reimbursed under a nonaccountable plan (discussed later).

If you are reimbursed under an accountable plan, but you fail to return, within a reasonable time, any amounts in excess of the substantiated amounts, the amounts paid in excess of the substantiated expenses are treated as paid under a nonaccountable plan. See Reasonable period of time , earlier, and Returning Excess Reimbursements , later.

You may be reimbursed under your employer's accountable plan for expenses related to that employer's business, some of which would be allowable as employee business expense deductions and some of which would not. The reimbursements you receive for the nondeductible expenses don’t meet rule (1) for accountable plans, and they are treated as paid under a nonaccountable plan.

Your employer's plan reimburses you for travel expenses while away from home on business and also for meals when you work late at the office, even though you aren’t away from home. The part of the arrangement that reimburses you for the nondeductible meals when you work late at the office is treated as paid under a nonaccountable plan.

One of the rules for an accountable plan is that you must adequately account to your employer for your expenses. You adequately account by giving your employer a statement of expense, an account book, a diary, or a similar record in which you entered each expense at or near the time you had it, along with documentary evidence (such as receipts) of your travel, mileage, and other employee business expenses. (See Table 5-1 in chapter 5 for details you need to enter in your record and documents you need to prove certain expenses.) A per diem or car allowance satisfies the adequate accounting requirement under certain conditions. See Per Diem and Car Allowances , later.

You must account for all amounts you received from your employer during the year as advances, reimbursements, or allowances. This includes amounts you charged to your employer by credit card or other method. You must give your employer the same type of records and supporting information that you would have to give to the IRS if the IRS questioned a deduction on your return. You must pay back the amount of any reimbursement or other expense allowance for which you don’t adequately account or that is more than the amount for which you accounted.

Per Diem and Car Allowances

If your employer reimburses you for your expenses using a per diem or a car allowance, you can generally use the allowance as proof for the amount of your expenses. A per diem or car allowance satisfies the adequate accounting requirements for the amount of your expenses only if all the following conditions apply.

Your employer reasonably limits payments of your expenses to those that are ordinary and necessary in the conduct of the trade or business.

The allowance is similar in form to and not more than the federal rate (defined later).

You prove the time (dates), place, and business purpose of your expenses to your employer (as explained in Table 5-1 ) within a reasonable period of time.

You aren’t related to your employer (as defined next). If you are related to your employer, you must be able to prove your expenses to the IRS even if you have already adequately accounted to your employer and returned any excess reimbursement.

You are related to your employer if:

Your employer is your brother or sister, half brother or half sister, spouse, ancestor, or lineal descendant;

Your employer is a corporation in which you own, directly or indirectly, more than 10% in value of the outstanding stock; or

Certain relationships (such as grantor, fiduciary, or beneficiary) exist between you, a trust, and your employer.

The federal rate can be figured using any one of the following methods.

For per diem amounts:

The regular federal per diem rate.

The high-low rate.

For car expenses:

A fixed and variable rate (FAVR).

The regular federal per diem rate is the highest amount that the federal government will pay to its employees for lodging and M&IE (or M&IE only) while they are traveling away from home in a particular area. The rates are different for different localities. Your employer should have these rates available. You can also find federal per diem rates at GSA.gov/travel/plan-book/per-diem-rates .

The standard meal allowance is the federal M&IE rate. For travel in 2023, the rate for most small localities in the United States is $59 per day. Most major cities and many other localities qualify for higher rates. You can find this information at GSA.gov/travel/plan-book/per-diem-rates .

You receive an allowance only for M&IE when your employer does one of the following.

Provides you with lodging (furnishes it in kind).

Reimburses you, based on your receipts, for the actual cost of your lodging.

Pays the hotel, motel, etc., directly for your lodging.

Doesn’t have a reasonable belief that you had (or will have) lodging expenses, such as when you stay with friends or relatives or sleep in the cab of your truck.

Figures the allowance on a basis similar to that used in figuring your compensation, such as number of hours worked or miles traveled.

This is a simplified method of figuring the federal per diem rate for travel within the continental United States. It eliminates the need to keep a current list of the per diem rates for each city.

Under the high-low method, the per diem amount for travel during January through September of 2023 is $297 (which includes $74 for M&IE) for certain high-cost locations. All other areas have a per diem amount of $204 (which includes $64 for M&IE). For more information, see Notice 2022-44, which can be found at IRS.gov/irb/2022-41_IRB#NOT-2022-44 .

Effective October 1, 2023, the per diem rate for certain high-cost locations increased to $309 (which includes $74 for M&IE). The rate for all other locations increased to $214 (which includes $64 for M&IE). For more information, see Notice 2023-68, which can be found at IRS.gov/irb/2023-41_IRB#NOT-2023-68 , and Revenue Procedure 2019-48 at IRS.gov/irb/2019-51_IRB#REV-PROC-2019-48 .

The standard meal allowance is for a full 24-hour day of travel. If you travel for part of a day, such as on the days you depart and return, you must prorate the full-day M&IE rate. This rule also applies if your employer uses the regular federal per diem rate or the high-low rate.

You can use either of the following methods to figure the federal M&IE for that day.

For the day you depart, add 3 / 4 of the standard meal allowance amount for that day.

For the day you return, add 3 / 4 of the standard meal allowance amount for the preceding day.

Method 2: Prorate the standard meal allowance using any method you consistently apply in accordance with reasonable business practice. For example, an employer can treat 2 full days of per diem (that includes M&IE) paid for travel away from home from 9 a.m. of one day to 5 p.m. of the next day as being no more than the federal rate. This is true even though a federal employee would be limited to a reimbursement of M&IE for only 1½ days of the federal M&IE rate.

This is a set rate per mile that you can use to figure your deductible car expenses. For 2023, the standard mileage rate for the cost of operating your car for business use is 65.5 cents ($0.655) per mile.

This is an allowance your employer may use to reimburse your car expenses. Under this method, your employer pays an allowance that includes a combination of payments covering fixed and variable costs, such as a cents-per-mile rate to cover your variable operating costs (such as gas, oil, etc.) plus a flat amount to cover your fixed costs (such as depreciation (or lease payments), insurance, etc.). If your employer chooses to use this method, your employer will request the necessary records from you.

If your reimbursement is in the form of an allowance received under an accountable plan, the following facts affect your reporting.

Whether the allowance or your actual expenses were more than the federal rate.

If your allowance is less than or equal to the federal rate, the allowance won’t be included in box 1 of your Form W-2. You don’t need to report the related expenses or the allowance on your return if your expenses are equal to or less than the allowance.

However, if your actual expenses are more than your allowance, you can complete Form 2106. If you are using actual expenses, you must be able to prove to the IRS the total amount of your expenses and reimbursements for the entire year. If you are using the standard meal allowance or the standard mileage rate, you don’t have to prove that amount.

In April, a member of a reserve component of the Armed Forces takes a 2-day business trip to Denver. The federal rate for Denver is $278 ($199 lodging + $79 M&IE) per day. As required by their employer's accountable plan, they account for the time (dates), place, and business purpose of the trip. Their employer reimburses them $278 a day ($556 total) for living expenses. Their living expenses in Denver aren’t more than $278 a day.

Their employer doesn’t include any of the reimbursement on their Form W-2 and they don’t deduct the expenses on their return.

In June, a fee-basis local government official takes a 2-day business trip to Boston. Their employer uses the high-low method to reimburse employees. Because Boston is a high-cost area, they are given an advance of $297 (which includes $74 for M&IE) a day ($594 total) for their lodging and M&IE. Their actual expenses totaled $700.

Since their $700 of expenses are more than their $594 advance, they include the excess expenses when they itemize their deductions. They complete Form 2106 (showing all of their expenses and reimbursements). They must also allocate their reimbursement between their meals and other expenses as discussed later under Completing Form 2106 .

A fee-basis state government official drives 10,000 miles during 2023 for business. Under their employer's accountable plan, they account for the time (dates), place, and business purpose of each trip. Their employer pays them a mileage allowance of 40 cents ($0.40) a mile.

Because their $6,550 expense figured under the standard mileage rate (10,000 miles x 65.5 cents ($0.655) per mile) is more than their $4,000 reimbursement (10,000 miles × 40 cents ($0.40)), they itemize their deductions to claim the excess expense. They complete Form 2106 (showing all their expenses and reimbursements) and enter $2,550 ($6,550 − $4,000) as an itemized deduction.

If your allowance is more than the federal rate, your employer must include the allowance amount up to the federal rate under code L in box 12 of your Form W-2. This amount isn’t taxable. However, the excess allowance will be included in box 1 of your Form W-2. You must report this part of your allowance as if it were wage income.

If your actual expenses are less than or equal to the federal rate, you don’t complete Form 2106 or claim any of your expenses on your return.

However, if your actual expenses are more than the federal rate, you can complete Form 2106 and deduct those excess expenses. You must report on Form 2106 your reimbursements up to the federal rate (as shown under code L in box 12 of your Form W-2) and all your expenses. You should be able to prove these amounts to the IRS.

Sasha, a performing artist, lives and works in Austin. In July, the employer sent Sasha to Albuquerque for 4 days on business. The employer paid the hotel directly for Sasha’s lodging and reimbursed $80 a day ($320 total) for M&IE. Sasha’s actual meal expenses weren’t more than the federal rate for Albuquerque, which is $69 per day.

The employer included the $44 that was more than the federal rate (($80 − $69) × 4) in box 1 of Sasha’s Form W-2. The employer shows $276 ($69 a day × 4) under code L in box 12 of Form W-2. This amount isn’t included in income. Sasha doesn’t have to complete Form 2106; however, Sasha must include the $44 in gross income as wages (by reporting the total amount shown in box 1 of their Form W-2).

Another performing artist, Ari, also lives in Austin and works for the same employer as in Example 1 . In May, the employer sent Ari to San Diego for 4 days and paid the hotel directly for the hotel bill. The employer reimbursed Ari $75 a day for M&IE. The federal rate for San Diego is $74 a day.

Ari can prove that actual non-entertainment-related meal expenses totaled $380. The employer's accountable plan won’t pay more than $75 a day for travel to San Diego, so Ari doesn’t give the employer the records that prove that the amount actually spent was $380. However, Ari does account for the time (dates), place, and business purpose of the trip. This is Ari’s only business trip this year.

Ari was reimbursed $300 ($75 × 4 days), which is $4 more than the federal rate of $296 ($74 × 4 days). The employer includes the $4 as income on the employee’s Form W-2 in box 1. The employer also enters $296 under code L in box 12 of the employee’s Form W-2.

Ari completes Form 2106 to figure deductible expenses and enters the total of actual expenses for the year ($380) on Form 2106. Ari also enters the reimbursements that weren’t included in income ($296). Ari’s total deductible meals and beverages expense, before the 50% limit, is $96. Ari will include $48 as an itemized deduction.

Palmer, a fee-basis state government official, drives 10,000 miles during 2023 for business. Under the employer's accountable plan, Palmer gets reimbursed 70 cents ($0.70) a mile, which is more than the standard mileage rate. The total reimbursement is $7,000.

The employer must include the reimbursement amount up to the standard mileage rate, $6,550 (10,000 miles x 65.5 cents ($0.655) per mile), under code L in box 12 of the employee’s Form W-2. That amount isn’t taxable. The employer must also include $450 ($7,000 − $6,550) in box 1 of the employee's Form W-2. This is the reimbursement that is more than the standard mileage rate.

If the expenses are equal to or less than the standard mileage rate, Palmer wouldn’t complete Form 2106. If the expenses are more than the standard mileage rate, Palmer would complete Form 2106 and report total expenses and reimbursement (shown under code L in box 12 of their Form W-2). Palmer would then claim the excess expenses as an itemized deduction.

Returning Excess Reimbursements

Under an accountable plan, you are required to return any excess reimbursement or other expense allowances for your business expenses to the person paying the reimbursement or allowance. Excess reimbursement means any amount for which you didn’t adequately account within a reasonable period of time. For example, if you received a travel advance and you didn’t spend all the money on business-related expenses or you don’t have proof of all your expenses, you have an excess reimbursement.

Adequate accounting and reasonable period of time were discussed earlier in this chapter.

You receive a travel advance if your employer provides you with an expense allowance before you actually have the expense, and the allowance is reasonably expected to be no more than your expense. Under an accountable plan, you are required to adequately account to your employer for this advance and to return any excess within a reasonable period of time.

If you don’t adequately account for or don't return any excess advance within a reasonable period of time, the amount you don’t account for or return will be treated as having been paid under a nonaccountable plan (discussed later).

If you don’t prove that you actually traveled on each day for which you received a per diem or car allowance (proving the elements described in Table 5-1 ), you must return this unproven amount of the travel advance within a reasonable period of time. If you don’t do this, the unproven amount will be considered paid under a nonaccountable plan (discussed later).

If your employer's accountable plan pays you an allowance that is higher than the federal rate, you don’t have to return the difference between the two rates for the period you can prove business-related travel expenses. However, the difference will be reported as wages on your Form W-2. This excess amount is considered paid under a nonaccountable plan (discussed later).

Your employer sends you on a 5-day business trip to Phoenix in March 2023 and gives you a $400 ($80 × 5 days) advance to cover your M&IE. The federal per diem for M&IE for Phoenix is $69. Your trip lasts only 3 days. Under your employer's accountable plan, you must return the $160 ($80 × 2 days) advance for the 2 days you didn’t travel. For the 3 days you did travel, you don’t have to return the $33 difference between the allowance you received and the federal rate for Phoenix (($80 − $69) × 3 days). However, the $33 will be reported on your Form W-2 as wages.

Nonaccountable Plans

A nonaccountable plan is a reimbursement or expense allowance arrangement that doesn’t meet one or more of the three rules listed earlier under Accountable Plans .

In addition, even if your employer has an accountable plan, the following payments will be treated as being paid under a nonaccountable plan.

Excess reimbursements you fail to return to your employer.

Reimbursement of nondeductible expenses related to your employer's business. See Reimbursement of nondeductible expenses , earlier, under Accountable Plans.

If you aren’t sure if the reimbursement or expense allowance arrangement is an accountable or nonaccountable plan, ask your employer.

Your employer will combine the amount of any reimbursement or other expense allowance paid to you under a nonaccountable plan with your wages, salary, or other pay. Your employer will report the total in box 1 of your Form W-2.

You must complete Form 2106 and itemize your deductions to deduct your expenses for travel, transportation, or non-entertainment-related meals. Your meal and entertainment expenses will be subject to the 50% Limit discussed in chapter 2.

Your employer gives you $1,000 a month ($12,000 total for the year) for your business expenses. You don’t have to provide any proof of your expenses to your employer, and you can keep any funds that you don’t spend.

You are a performing artist and are being reimbursed under a nonaccountable plan. Your employer will include the $12,000 on your Form W-2 as if it were wages. If you want to deduct your business expenses, you must complete Form 2106 and itemize your deductions.

You are paid $2,000 a month by your employer. On days that you travel away from home on business, your employer designates $50 a day of your salary as paid to reimburse your travel expenses. Because your employer would pay your monthly salary whether or not you were traveling away from home, the arrangement is a nonaccountable plan. No part of the $50 a day designated by your employer is treated as paid under an accountable plan.

Rules for Independent Contractors and Clients

This section provides rules for independent contractors who incur expenses on behalf of a client or customer. The rules cover the reporting and substantiation of certain expenses discussed in this publication, and they affect both independent contractors and their clients or customers.

You are considered an independent contractor if you are self-employed and you perform services for a customer or client.

Accounting to Your Client

If you received a reimbursement or an allowance for travel, or gift expenses that you incurred on behalf of a client, you should provide an adequate accounting of these expenses to your client. If you don’t account to your client for these expenses, you must include any reimbursements or allowances in income. You must keep adequate records of these expenses whether or not you account to your client for these expenses.

If you don’t separately account for and seek reimbursement for meal and entertainment expenses in connection with providing services for a client, you are subject to the 50% limit on those expenses. See 50% Limit in chapter 2.

As a self-employed person, you adequately account by reporting your actual expenses. You should follow the recordkeeping rules in chapter 5 .

For information on how to report expenses on your tax return, see Self-employed at the beginning of this chapter.

Required Records for Clients or Customers

If you are a client or customer, you generally don’t have to keep records to prove the reimbursements or allowances you give, in the course of your business, to an independent contractor for travel or gift expenses incurred on your behalf. However, you must keep records if:

You reimburse the contractor for entertainment expenses incurred on your behalf, and

The contractor adequately accounts to you for these expenses.

If the contractor adequately accounts to you for non-entertainment-related meal expenses, you (the client or customer) must keep records documenting each element of the expense, as explained in chapter 5 . Use your records as proof for a deduction on your tax return. If non-entertainment-related meal expenses are accounted for separately, you are subject to the 50% limit on meals. If the contractor adequately accounts to you for reimbursed amounts, you don’t have to report the amounts on an information return.

If the contractor doesn’t adequately account to you for allowances or reimbursements of non-entertainment-related meal expenses, you don’t have to keep records of these items. You aren’t subject to the 50% limit on meals in this case. You can deduct the reimbursements or allowances as payment for services if they are ordinary and necessary business expenses. However, you must file Form 1099-MISC to report amounts paid to the independent contractor if the total of the reimbursements and any other fees is $600 or more during the calendar year.

How To Use Per Diem Rate Tables

This section contains information about the per diem rate substantiation methods available and the choice of rates you must make for the last 3 months of the year.

The Two Substantiation Methods

IRS Notices list the localities that are treated under the high-low substantiation method as high-cost localities for all or part of the year. Notice 2022-44, available at IRS.gov/irb/2022-41_IRB#NOT-2022-44 , lists the high-cost localities that are eligible for $297 (which includes $74 for meals and incidental expenses (M&IE)) per diem, effective October 1, 2022. For travel on or after October 1, 2022, all other localities within the continental United States (CONUS) are eligible for $204 (which includes $64 for M&IE) per diem under the high-low method.

Notice 2023-68, available at IRS.gov/irb/2023-41_IRB#NOT-2023-68 , lists the high-cost localities that are eligible for $309 (which includes $74 for M&IE) per diem, effective October 1, 2023. For travel on or after October 1, 2023, the per diem for all other localities increased to $214 (which includes $64 for M&IE).

Regular federal per diem rates are published by the General Services Administration (GSA). Both tables include the separate rate for M&IE for each locality. The rates listed for FY2023 at GSA.gov/travel/plan-book/per-diem-rates are effective October 1, 2022, and those listed for FY2024 are effective October 1, 2023. The standard rate for all locations within CONUS not specifically listed for FY2023 is $157 ($98 for lodging and $59 for M&IE). For FY2024, this rate increases to $166 ($107 for lodging and $59 for M&IE).

Transition Rules

The transition period covers the last 3 months of the calendar year, from the time that new rates are effective (generally, October 1) through December 31. During this period, you may generally change to the new rates or finish out the year with the rates you had been using.

If you use the high-low substantiation method, when new rates become effective (generally, October 1), you can either continue with the rates you used for the first part of the year or change to the new rates. However, you must continue using the high-low method for the rest of the calendar year (through December 31). If you are an employer, you must use the same rates for all employees reimbursed under the high-low method during that calendar year.

The new rates and localities for the high-low method are included each year in a notice that is generally published in mid to late September. You can find the notice in the weekly Internal Revenue Bulletin (IRB) at IRS.gov/IRB , or visit IRS.gov and enter “Special Per Diem Rates” in the search box.

New CONUS per diem rates become effective on October 1 of each year and remain in effect through September 30 of the following year. Employees being reimbursed under the per diem rate method during the first 9 months of a year (January 1–September 30) must continue under the same method through the end of that calendar year (December 31). However, for travel by these employees from October 1 through December 31, you can choose to continue using the same per diem rates or use the new rates.

The new federal CONUS per diem rates are published each year, generally early in September. Go to GSA.gov/travel/plan-book/per-diem-rates .

Completing Form 2106

For tax years beginning after 2017, the Form 2106 will be used by Armed Forces reservists, qualified performing artists, fee-basis state or local government officials, and employees with impairment-related work expenses. Due to the suspension of miscellaneous itemized deductions subject to the 2% floor under section 67(a), employees who do not fit into one of the listed categories may not use Form 2106.

This section briefly describes how employees complete Forms 2106. Table 6-1 explains what the employer reports on Form W-2 and what the employee reports on Form 2106. The instructions for the forms have more information on completing them.

Table 6-1. Reporting Travel, Nonentertainment Meal, Gift, and Car Expenses and Reimbursements

If you used a car to perform your job as an employee, you may be able to deduct certain car expenses. These are generally figured on Form 2106, Part II, and then claimed on Form 2106, Part I, line 1, column A.

If you claim any deduction for the business use of a car, you must answer certain questions and provide information about the use of the car. The information relates to the following items.

Date placed in service.

Mileage (total, business, commuting, and other personal mileage).

Percentage of business use.

After-work use.

Use of other vehicles.

Whether you have evidence to support the deduction.

Whether or not the evidence is written.

If you claim a deduction based on the standard mileage rate instead of your actual expenses, you must complete Form 2106, Part II, Section B. The amount on line 22 (Section B) is carried to Form 2106, Part I, line 1. In addition, on Part I, line 2, you can deduct parking fees and tolls that apply to the business use of the car. See Standard Mileage Rate in chapter 4 for information on using this rate.

If you claim a deduction based on actual car expenses, you must complete Form 2106, Part II, Section C. In addition, unless you lease your car, you must complete Section D to show your depreciation deduction and any section 179 deduction you claim.

If you are still using a car that is fully depreciated, continue to complete Section C. Since you have no depreciation deduction, enter zero on line 28. In this case, don’t complete Section D.

If you claim car rental expenses on Form 2106, line 24a, you may have to reduce that expense by an inclusion amount , as described in chapter 4. If so, you can show your car expenses and any inclusion amount as follows.

Figure the inclusion amount without taking into account your business-use percentage for the tax year.

Report the inclusion amount from (1) on Form 2106, Part II, line 24b.

Report on line 24c the net amount of car rental expenses (total car rental expenses minus the inclusion amount figured in (1)).

Show your transportation expenses that didn’t involve overnight travel on Form 2106, line 2, column A. Also include on this line business expenses you have for parking fees and tolls. Don’t include expenses of operating your car or expenses of commuting between your home and work.

Show your other employee business expenses on Form 2106, lines 3 and 4, column A. Don’t include expenses for nonentertainment meals on those lines. Line 4 is for expenses such as gifts, educational expenses (tuition and books), office-in-the-home expenses, and trade and professional publications.

Show the full amount of your expenses for nonentertainment business-related meals on Form 2106, line 5, column B. Include meals while away from your tax home overnight and other business meals. Enter 50% of the line 8, column B, meal expenses on line 9, column B.

If you are subject to the Department of Transportation's “hours of service” limits (as explained earlier under Individuals subject to hours of service limits in chapter 2), use 80% instead of 50% for meals while away from your tax home.

Enter on Form 2106, line 7, the amounts your employer (or third party) reimbursed you that weren’t reported to you in box 1 of your Form W-2. This includes any amount reported under code L in box 12 of Form W-2.

If you were reimbursed under an accountable plan and want to deduct excess expenses that weren’t reimbursed, you may have to allocate your reimbursement. This is necessary when your employer pays your reimbursement in the following manner.

Pays you a single amount that covers non-entertainment-related meals and/or entertainment, as well as other business expenses.

Doesn’t clearly identify how much is for deductible non-entertainment-related meals.

Your employer paid you an expense allowance of $12,000 this year under an accountable plan. The $12,000 payment consisted of $5,000 for airfare and $7,000 for non-entertainment-related meals, and car expenses. Your employer didn’t clearly show how much of the $7,000 was for the cost of deductible non-entertainment-related meals. You actually spent $14,000 during the year ($5,500 for airfare, $4,500 for non-entertainment-related meals, and $4,000 for car expenses).

Since the airfare allowance was clearly identified, you know that $5,000 of the payment goes in column A, line 7, of Form 2106. To allocate the remaining $7,000, you use the worksheet from the Instructions for Form 2106. Your completed worksheet follows.

Reimbursement Allocation Worksheet (Keep for your records.)

If you are a government official paid on a fee basis, a performing artist, an Armed Forces reservist, or a disabled employee with impairment-related work expenses, see Special Rules , later.

Your employee business expenses may be subject to either of the limits described next. They are figured in the following order on the specified form.

Certain non-entertainment-related meal expenses are subject to a 50% limit. Generally, entertainment expenses are nondeductible if paid or incurred after December 2017. If you are an employee, you figure this limit on line 9 of Form 2106. (See 50% Limit in chapter 2.)

Limitations on itemized deductions are suspended for tax years beginning after 2017 and before tax year January 2026, per section 68(g).

Special Rules

This section discusses special rules that apply only to Armed Forces reservists, government officials who are paid on a fee basis, performing artists, and disabled employees with impairment-related work expenses. For tax years beginning after 2017, they are the only taxpayers who can use Form 2106.

Armed Forces Reservists Traveling More Than 100 Miles From Home

If you are a member of a reserve component of the Armed Forces of the United States and you travel more than 100 miles away from home in connection with your performance of services as a member of the reserves, you can deduct your travel expenses as an adjustment to gross income rather than as a miscellaneous itemized deduction. The amount of expenses you can deduct as an adjustment to gross income is limited to the regular federal per diem rate (for lodging and M&IE) and the standard mileage rate (for car expenses) plus any parking fees, ferry fees, and tolls. See Per Diem and Car Allowances , earlier, for more information.

You are a member of a reserve component of the Armed Forces of the United States if you are in the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, or Coast Guard Reserve; the Army National Guard of the United States; the Air National Guard of the United States; or the Reserve Corps of the Public Health Service.

If you have reserve-related travel that takes you more than 100 miles from home, you should first complete Form 2106. Then include your expenses for reserve travel over 100 miles from home, up to the federal rate, from Form 2106, line 10, in the total on Schedule 1 (Form 1040), line 12.

You can’t deduct expenses of travel that doesn’t take you more than 100 miles from home as an adjustment to gross income.

Certain fee-basis officials can claim their employee business expenses on Form 2106.

Fee-basis officials are persons who are employed by a state or local government and who are paid in whole or in part on a fee basis. They can deduct their business expenses in performing services in that job as an adjustment to gross income rather than as a miscellaneous itemized deduction.

If you are a fee-basis official, include your employee business expenses from Form 2106, line 10, in the total on Schedule 1 (Form 1040), line 12.

Expenses of Certain Performing Artists

If you are a performing artist, you may qualify to deduct your employee business expenses as an adjustment to gross income. To qualify, you must meet all of the following requirements.

During the tax year, you perform services in the performing arts as an employee for at least two employers.

You receive at least $200 each from any two of these employers.

Your related performing-arts business expenses are more than 10% of your gross income from the performance of those services.

Your adjusted gross income isn’t more than $16,000 before deducting these business expenses.

If you are married, you must file a joint return unless you lived apart from your spouse at all times during the tax year. If you file a joint return, you must figure requirements (1), (2), and (3) separately for both you and your spouse. However, requirement (4) applies to your and your spouse's combined adjusted gross income.

If you meet all of the above requirements, you should first complete Form 2106. Then you include your performing-arts-related expenses from Form 2106, line 10, in the total on Schedule 1 (Form 1040), line 12.

If you don’t meet all of the above requirements, you don’t qualify to deduct your expenses as an adjustment to gross income.

If you are an employee with a physical or mental disability, your impairment-related work expenses aren’t subject to the 2%-of-adjusted-gross-income limit that applies to most other employee business expenses. After you complete Form 2106, enter your impairment-related work expenses from Form 2106, line 10, on Schedule A (Form 1040), line 16, and identify the type and amount of this expense on the line next to line 16.

Impairment-related work expenses are your allowable expenses for attendant care at your workplace and other expenses in connection with your workplace that are necessary for you to be able to work.

You are disabled if you have:

A physical or mental disability (for example, blindness or deafness) that functionally limits your being employed; or

A physical or mental impairment (for example, a sight or hearing impairment) that substantially limits one or more of your major life activities, such as performing manual tasks, walking, speaking, breathing, learning, or working.

You can deduct impairment-related expenses as business expenses if they are:

Necessary for you to do your work satisfactorily;

For goods and services not required or used, other than incidentally, in your personal activities; and

Not specifically covered under other income tax laws.

You are blind. You must use a reader to do your work. You use the reader both during your regular working hours at your place of work and outside your regular working hours away from your place of work. The reader's services are only for your work. You can deduct your expenses for the reader as business expenses.

You are deaf. You must use a sign language interpreter during meetings while you are at work. The interpreter's services are used only for your work. You can deduct your expenses for the interpreter as business expenses.

How To Get Tax Help

If you have questions about a tax issue; need help preparing your tax return; or want to download free publications, forms, or instructions, go to IRS.gov to find resources that can help you right away.

After receiving all your wage and earnings statements (Forms W-2, W-2G, 1099-R, 1099-MISC, 1099-NEC, etc.); unemployment compensation statements (by mail or in a digital format) or other government payment statements (Form 1099-G); and interest, dividend, and retirement statements from banks and investment firms (Forms 1099), you have several options to choose from to prepare and file your tax return. You can prepare the tax return yourself, see if you qualify for free tax preparation, or hire a tax professional to prepare your return.

Your options for preparing and filing your return online or in your local community, if you qualify, include the following.

Free File. This program lets you prepare and file your federal individual income tax return for free using software or Free File Fillable Forms. However, state tax preparation may not be available through Free File. Go to IRS.gov/FreeFile to see if you qualify for free online federal tax preparation, e-filing, and direct deposit or payment options.

VITA. The Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (VITA) program offers free tax help to people with low-to-moderate incomes, persons with disabilities, and limited-English-speaking taxpayers who need help preparing their own tax returns. Go to IRS.gov/VITA , download the free IRS2Go app, or call 800-906-9887 for information on free tax return preparation.

TCE. The Tax Counseling for the Elderly (TCE) program offers free tax help for all taxpayers, particularly those who are 60 years of age and older. TCE volunteers specialize in answering questions about pensions and retirement-related issues unique to seniors. Go to IRS.gov/TCE or download the free IRS2Go app for information on free tax return preparation.

MilTax. Members of the U.S. Armed Forces and qualified veterans may use MilTax, a free tax service offered by the Department of Defense through Military OneSource. For more information, go to MilitaryOneSource ( MilitaryOneSource.mil/MilTax ).

Also, the IRS offers Free Fillable Forms, which can be completed online and then e-filed regardless of income.

Go to IRS.gov/Tools for the following.

The Earned Income Tax Credit Assistant ( IRS.gov/EITCAssistant ) determines if you’re eligible for the earned income credit (EIC).

The Online EIN Application ( IRS.gov/EIN ) helps you get an employer identification number (EIN) at no cost.

The Tax Withholding Estimator ( IRS.gov/W4App ) makes it easier for you to estimate the federal income tax you want your employer to withhold from your paycheck. This is tax withholding. See how your withholding affects your refund, take-home pay, or tax due.

The First Time Homebuyer Credit Account Look-up ( IRS.gov/HomeBuyer ) tool provides information on your repayments and account balance.

The Sales Tax Deduction Calculator ( IRS.gov/SalesTax ) figures the amount you can claim if you itemize deductions on Schedule A (Form 1040).

Go to IRS.gov/Help : A variety of tools to help you get answers to some of the most common tax questions.

Go to IRS.gov/ITA : The Interactive Tax Assistant, a tool that will ask you questions and, based on your input, provide answers on a number of tax topics.

Go to IRS.gov/Forms : Find forms, instructions, and publications. You will find details on the most recent tax changes and interactive links to help you find answers to your questions.

You may also be able to access tax information in your e-filing software.

There are various types of tax return preparers, including enrolled agents, certified public accountants (CPAs), accountants, and many others who don’t have professional credentials. If you choose to have someone prepare your tax return, choose that preparer wisely. A paid tax preparer is:

Primarily responsible for the overall substantive accuracy of your return,

Required to sign the return, and

Required to include their preparer tax identification number (PTIN).

The Social Security Administration (SSA) offers online service at SSA.gov/employer for fast, free, and secure W-2 filing options to CPAs, accountants, enrolled agents, and individuals who process Form W-2, Wage and Tax Statement, and Form W-2c, Corrected Wage and Tax Statement.

Go to IRS.gov/SocialMedia to see the various social media tools the IRS uses to share the latest information on tax changes, scam alerts, initiatives, products, and services. At the IRS, privacy and security are our highest priority. We use these tools to share public information with you. Don’t post your social security number (SSN) or other confidential information on social media sites. Always protect your identity when using any social networking site.

The following IRS YouTube channels provide short, informative videos on various tax-related topics in English, Spanish, and ASL.

Youtube.com/irsvideos .

Youtube.com/irsvideosmultilingua .

Youtube.com/irsvideosASL .

The IRS Video portal ( IRSVideos.gov ) contains video and audio presentations for individuals, small businesses, and tax professionals.

You can find information on IRS.gov/MyLanguage if English isn’t your native language.

The IRS is committed to serving taxpayers with limited-English proficiency (LEP) by offering OPI services. The OPI Service is a federally funded program and is available at Taxpayer Assistance Centers (TACs), most IRS offices, and every VITA/TCE tax return site. The OPI Service is accessible in more than 350 languages.

Taxpayers who need information about accessibility services can call 833-690-0598. The Accessibility Helpline can answer questions related to current and future accessibility products and services available in alternative media formats (for example, braille, large print, audio, etc.). The Accessibility Helpline does not have access to your IRS account. For help with tax law, refunds, or account-related issues, go to IRS.gov/LetUsHelp .

Form 9000, Alternative Media Preference, or Form 9000(SP) allows you to elect to receive certain types of written correspondence in the following formats.

Standard Print.

Large Print.

Audio (MP3).

Plain Text File (TXT).

Braille Ready File (BRF).

Go to IRS.gov/DisasterRelief to review the available disaster tax relief.

Go to IRS.gov/Forms to view, download, or print all the forms, instructions, and publications you may need. Or, you can go to IRS.gov/OrderForms to place an order.

Download and view most tax publications and instructions (including the Instructions for Form 1040) on mobile devices as eBooks at IRS.gov/eBooks .

IRS eBooks have been tested using Apple's iBooks for iPad. Our eBooks haven’t been tested on other dedicated eBook readers, and eBook functionality may not operate as intended.

Go to IRS.gov/Account to securely access information about your federal tax account.

View the amount you owe and a breakdown by tax year.

See payment plan details or apply for a new payment plan.

Make a payment or view 5 years of payment history and any pending or scheduled payments.

Access your tax records, including key data from your most recent tax return, and transcripts.

View digital copies of select notices from the IRS.

Approve or reject authorization requests from tax professionals.

View your address on file or manage your communication preferences.

With an online account, you can access a variety of information to help you during the filing season. You can get a transcript, review your most recently filed tax return, and get your adjusted gross income. Create or access your online account at IRS.gov/Account .

This tool lets your tax professional submit an authorization request to access your individual taxpayer IRS online account. For more information, go to IRS.gov/TaxProAccount .

The safest and easiest way to receive a tax refund is to e-file and choose direct deposit, which securely and electronically transfers your refund directly into your financial account. Direct deposit also avoids the possibility that your check could be lost, stolen, destroyed, or returned undeliverable to the IRS. Eight in 10 taxpayers use direct deposit to receive their refunds. If you don’t have a bank account, go to IRS.gov/DirectDeposit for more information on where to find a bank or credit union that can open an account online.

Tax-related identity theft happens when someone steals your personal information to commit tax fraud. Your taxes can be affected if your SSN is used to file a fraudulent return or to claim a refund or credit.

The IRS doesn’t initiate contact with taxpayers by email, text messages (including shortened links), telephone calls, or social media channels to request or verify personal or financial information. This includes requests for personal identification numbers (PINs), passwords, or similar information for credit cards, banks, or other financial accounts.

Go to IRS.gov/IdentityTheft , the IRS Identity Theft Central webpage, for information on identity theft and data security protection for taxpayers, tax professionals, and businesses. If your SSN has been lost or stolen or you suspect you’re a victim of tax-related identity theft, you can learn what steps you should take.

Get an Identity Protection PIN (IP PIN). IP PINs are six-digit numbers assigned to taxpayers to help prevent the misuse of their SSNs on fraudulent federal income tax returns. When you have an IP PIN, it prevents someone else from filing a tax return with your SSN. To learn more, go to IRS.gov/IPPIN .

Go to IRS.gov/Refunds .

Download the official IRS2Go app to your mobile device to check your refund status.

Call the automated refund hotline at 800-829-1954.

Payments of U.S. tax must be remitted to the IRS in U.S. dollars. Digital assets are not accepted. Go to IRS.gov/Payments for information on how to make a payment using any of the following options.

IRS Direct Pay : Pay your individual tax bill or estimated tax payment directly from your checking or savings account at no cost to you.

Debit Card, Credit Card, or Digital Wallet : Choose an approved payment processor to pay online or by phone.

Electronic Funds Withdrawal : Schedule a payment when filing your federal taxes using tax return preparation software or through a tax professional.

Electronic Federal Tax Payment System : Best option for businesses. Enrollment is required.

Check or Money Order : Mail your payment to the address listed on the notice or instructions.

Cash : You may be able to pay your taxes with cash at a participating retail store.

Same-Day Wire : You may be able to do same-day wire from your financial institution. Contact your financial institution for availability, cost, and time frames.

Note. The IRS uses the latest encryption technology to ensure that the electronic payments you make online, by phone, or from a mobile device using the IRS2Go app are safe and secure. Paying electronically is quick, easy, and faster than mailing in a check or money order.

Go to IRS.gov/Payments for more information about your options.

Apply for an online payment agreement ( IRS.gov/OPA ) to meet your tax obligation in monthly installments if you can’t pay your taxes in full today. Once you complete the online process, you will receive immediate notification of whether your agreement has been approved.

Use the Offer in Compromise Pre-Qualifier to see if you can settle your tax debt for less than the full amount you owe. For more information on the Offer in Compromise program, go to IRS.gov/OIC .

Go to IRS.gov/Form1040X for information and updates.

Go to IRS.gov/WMAR to track the status of Form 1040-X amended returns.

Go to IRS.gov/Notices to find additional information about responding to an IRS notice or letter.

You can now upload responses to all notices and letters using the Document Upload Tool. For notices that require additional action, taxpayers will be redirected appropriately on IRS.gov to take further action. To learn more about the tool, go to IRS.gov/Upload .

You can use Schedule LEP (Form 1040), Request for Change in Language Preference, to state a preference to receive notices, letters, or other written communications from the IRS in an alternative language. You may not immediately receive written communications in the requested language. The IRS’s commitment to LEP taxpayers is part of a multi-year timeline that began providing translations in 2023. You will continue to receive communications, including notices and letters, in English until they are translated to your preferred language.

Keep in mind, many questions can be answered on IRS.gov without visiting a TAC. Go to IRS.gov/LetUsHelp for the topics people ask about most. If you still need help, TACs provide tax help when a tax issue can’t be handled online or by phone. All TACs now provide service by appointment, so you’ll know in advance that you can get the service you need without long wait times. Before you visit, go to IRS.gov/TACLocator to find the nearest TAC and to check hours, available services, and appointment options. Or, on the IRS2Go app, under the Stay Connected tab, choose the Contact Us option and click on “Local Offices.”

The Taxpayer Advocate Service (TAS) Is Here To Help You

TAS is an independent organization within the IRS that helps taxpayers and protects taxpayer rights. TAS strives to ensure that every taxpayer is treated fairly and that you know and understand your rights under the Taxpayer Bill of Rights .

The Taxpayer Bill of Rights describes 10 basic rights that all taxpayers have when dealing with the IRS. Go to TaxpayerAdvocate.IRS.gov to help you understand what these rights mean to you and how they apply. These are your rights. Know them. Use them.

TAS can help you resolve problems that you can’t resolve with the IRS. And their service is free. If you qualify for their assistance, you will be assigned to one advocate who will work with you throughout the process and will do everything possible to resolve your issue. TAS can help you if:

Your problem is causing financial difficulty for you, your family, or your business;

You face (or your business is facing) an immediate threat of adverse action; or

You’ve tried repeatedly to contact the IRS but no one has responded, or the IRS hasn’t responded by the date promised.

TAS has offices in every state, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico . To find your advocate’s number:

Go to TaxpayerAdvocate.IRS.gov/Contact-Us ;

Download Pub. 1546, The Taxpayer Advocate Service Is Your Voice at the IRS, available at IRS.gov/pub/irs-pdf/p1546.pdf ;

Call the IRS toll free at 800-TAX-FORM (800-829-3676) to order a copy of Pub. 1546;

Check your local directory; or

Call TAS toll free at 877-777-4778.

TAS works to resolve large-scale problems that affect many taxpayers. If you know of one of these broad issues, report it to TAS at IRS.gov/SAMS . Be sure to not include any personal taxpayer information.

LITCs are independent from the IRS and TAS. LITCs represent individuals whose income is below a certain level and who need to resolve tax problems with the IRS. LITCs can represent taxpayers in audits, appeals, and tax collection disputes before the IRS and in court. In addition, LITCs can provide information about taxpayer rights and responsibilities in different languages for individuals who speak English as a second language. Services are offered for free or a small fee. For more information or to find an LITC near you, go to the LITC page at TaxpayerAdvocate.IRS.gov/LITC or see IRS Pub. 4134, Low Income Taxpayer Clinic List , at IRS.gov/pub/irs-pdf/p4134.pdf .

Appendices A-1 through A-6 show the lease inclusion amounts that you may need to report if you first leased a passenger automobile (including a truck and van) in 2018 through 2023 for 30 days or more.

If any of these apply to you, use the appendix for the year you first leased the car. (See Leasing a Car in chapter 4.)

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Travel could be a good deal this summer. Here's when plane ticket prices will peak.

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Spring is springing, and according to Hopper, it’s time to start thinking about your summer vacation plans.

New data from the online booking site shows some favorable trends for travelers in the next few months, including slightly lower airfares compared with 2023 and hotel and car rental prices that are more or less flat year-over-year.

Here’s what you need to know as you prepare to book, whether you’re looking for a domestic getaway or go on an overseas adventure. It’s also not too late to take advantage of deals on some last-minute trips.

How much are spring and summer plane tickets?

According to Hopper, the best deals right now are on domestic airline tickets. Round-trip flights within the U.S. are averaging $290 in April, but prices are expected to rise in the months ahead.

Hopper’s data shows prices for domestic flights will peak between May and June at $315 on average, then will gradually fall through the summer, reaching a low of $264 on average in September.

On a call with investors discussing first-quarter earnings Wednesday, Delta Air Lines CEO Ed Bastian said summer travel demand has been pushed forward in recent years in part because schools, especially in the South, are finishing their summer breaks earlier in the year.

Is airport Wi-Fi safe to use? How to keep your information safe while traveling.

Short vs. long cruises: Which one is right for you? Here's how they compare.

This summer also will be a good time to travel internationally; Hopper data shows fares to most destinations abroad are down compared with last year. 

“Airfare to international destinations continues to improve following two years of bloated prices due to quickly recovering demand, high fuel prices and supply constraints. Airfare to most major regions of the world has dropped compared to last year with the exception of trips to Canada,” Hayley Berg, Hopper’s chief economist, said in the report. “International fares remain higher than pre-pandemic levels to most regions, as higher fuel prices persist and airlines continue to rebuild capacity to many regions.”

How much will a hotel room for the spring and summer cost?

Hotel prices remain mostly flat compared with the same time last year. Rooms in the U.S. are averaging $206 a night; better deals are available in some trending international destinations like Osaka, Japan, and Istanbul, Turkey.

According to Hopper, Las Vegas, New York and Chicago remain popular destinations in the U.S.

Will car rental prices rise this summer?

Car rental prices also haven’t increased much since last year and average $42 a day, according to Hopper.

The report shows most travelers rent a car for about four days, and warm-weather destinations like Orlando and Los Angeles remain popular pickup points.

Zach Wichter is a travel reporter for USA TODAY based in New York. You can reach him at [email protected].

Bento Bucks (English)

Bento Bucks (English)

15 Expensive Travel Costs People Always Regret

Posted: February 23, 2024 | Last updated: February 23, 2024

<p>Traveling offers many benefits, like giving us a break from life's daily demands and refreshing our minds allowing us to think more clearly. However, it can also bring extra stress if we overspend beyond our means or budget. Today, we'll discuss the common travel expenses that often cause regrets after the trip. These are the costs you should eliminate to avoid having regrets at the end of your trip.</p>

Traveling offers many benefits, like giving us a break from life's daily demands and refreshing our minds allowing us to think more clearly. However, it can also bring extra stress if we overspend beyond our means or budget. Today, we'll discuss the common travel expenses that often cause regrets after the trip. These are the costs you should eliminate to avoid having regrets at the end of your trip.

<p>Families often pay extra to ensure they sit together during flights, especially when traveling with children. However, most airlines have unofficial policies to seat families together, particularly if kids are under 16. Unless you're aiming for specific upgrades or seats with extra advantages, spending on seat assignments is not really necessary.</p>

1. Paying for Seat Assignments

Families often pay extra to ensure they sit together during flights, especially when traveling with children. However, most airlines have unofficial policies to seat families together, particularly if kids are under 16. Unless you're aiming for specific upgrades or seats with extra advantages, spending on seat assignments is not really necessary.

<p>While it might seem tempting to avoid credit cards after a bad credit experience, completely avoiding credit can result in a lack of credit history. This absence of credit activity can make it challenging to secure credit in the future for significant purchases like a home or car.</p>

2. Car Rental Costs

Renting a car can be quite costly, varying significantly based on the country you're visiting and the type of car you choose. While having a rental offers convenience, sometimes opting for public transportation could be a more budget-friendly choice. It's worth considering the overall expenses and convenience of using a rental car versus other transportation options.

<p>When renting a car, many travelers opt for additional insurance provided by the rental company to ensure peace of mind. However, this insurance can substantially increase the total cost of your rental, which may later regret. Before purchasing this add-on insurance, it's advisable to check if your existing car insurance policy covers rental cars.</p>

3. Car Rental Insurance

When renting a car, many travelers opt for additional insurance provided by the rental company to ensure peace of mind. However, this insurance can substantially increase the total cost of your rental, which may later regret. Before purchasing this add-on insurance, it's advisable to check if your existing car insurance policy covers rental cars.

<p>Choosing to stay at a luxurious, five-star hotel can be enticing, especially when visiting new and exotic destinations. While these hotels offer exceptional service and amenities, the high cost might not always justify the experience, particularly if you plan to spend more time exploring the destination than staying in your hotel room. Often, more reasonably priced accommodations such as Airbnb can offer comfort and amenities that are just as good, if not better, than those in high-end hotels.</p>

4. Luxury Hotels

Choosing to stay at a luxurious, five-star hotel can be enticing, especially when visiting new and exotic destinations. While these hotels offer exceptional service and amenities, the high cost might not always justify the experience, particularly if you plan to spend more time exploring the destination than staying in your hotel room. Often, more reasonably priced accommodations such as Airbnb can offer comfort and amenities that are just as good, if not better, than those in high-end hotels.

<p>Staying connected while traveling is essential for many people, but using your regular phone plan abroad can lead to expensive roaming charges. Instead, opting for local SIM cards or travel eSIMs can be a cost-effective solution. These options allow you to stay connected without incurring hefty roaming fees.</p>

5. Expensive Roaming Fees

Staying connected while traveling is essential for many people, but using your regular phone plan abroad can lead to expensive roaming charges. Instead, opting for local SIM cards or travel eSIMs can be a cost-effective solution. These options allow you to stay connected without incurring hefty roaming fees.

<p>It's common for hotel bookings to offer add-ons like Wi-Fi or drink packages that you can upgrade to without actually seeing them. So, take time to read through all the details before making your reservation.</p>

6. Upgrading for Anything Unseen at a Hotel

It's common for hotel bookings to offer add-ons like Wi-Fi or drink packages that you can upgrade to without actually seeing them. So, take time to read through all the details before making your reservation.

<p>While flying first class might seem luxurious, there are potential drawbacks, which include high costs that may not be worth it. Paying a hefty amount for a first-class ticket might only get you a slightly larger seat, not significantly different from an economy seat that costs much less. Moreover, flight delays or cancellations cannot be avoided even if you’re traveling first class.</p>

7. Flying First Class

While flying first class might seem luxurious, there are potential drawbacks, which include high costs that may not be worth it. Paying a hefty amount for a first-class ticket might only get you a slightly larger seat, not significantly different from an economy seat that costs much less. Moreover, flight delays or cancellations cannot be avoided even if you’re traveling first class.

<p><span>Cancel all the bank cards since she has no idea which ones were compromised. This protective measure can protect her from being saddled with a fraudster’s debt. </span></p>

8. Card Transactions

Using ATMs abroad often incurs fees, which can be frustrating. However, there are ways to avoid these charges. Switching to a bank that waives foreign transaction fees or opting for a travel-specific card with no foreign transaction fees can save you money. Additionally, you may seek cards that don't charge for remote transactions.

<p>Airport lounges are an oasis of calm in the chaos of the airport. Many lounges offer free food and drinks, comfortable seating, and Wi-Fi access. One frequent traveler suggests looking for lounges that offer a shower facility, so you can freshen up before your flight. Access to airport lounges can be obtained through various methods, such as purchasing a day pass or using credit card rewards.</p>

9. Membership Airfare Lounges

Airport lounge memberships offer pre-flight relaxation with perks like complimentary drinks and Wi-Fi. But if you're an occasional traveler, the annual fees for lounge access might not be worth it. Fortunately, many airports provide ample seating and amenities in their terminals, making lounge memberships unnecessary for infrequent flyers.

<p>As more people began to exploit this life hack, parking garages, and systems have become more advanced and sophisticated, with features such as cameras, license plate recognition technology, and payment kiosks that automatically calculate parking fees based on the duration of the stay. There are also sensors in the ground that will prevent the kiosk from dispensing a ticket for a person who is not in a vehicle.</p> <p>Additionally, parking garages now have attendants and security personnel who are trained to detect and prevent fraudulent activities such as ticket swapping. They may check the driver’s ticket and the time of entry to ensure that they have paid the correct amount and have not overstayed their welcome.</p>

10. Airport Parking Fees

While airport parking might seem convenient, there are potential pitfalls, particularly the high costs. Ensure you're aware of the terms and dates, as some parking services might charge for additional days if your car stays beyond your intended period. Reading the fine print and being mindful of your parking duration can save you from unexpected extra charges.

<p>Minibars in hotels tend to be significantly overpriced. It's recommended to avoid them altogether because you can typically find similar items at local stores for much cheaper prices. Save money by purchasing what you need from nearby stores rather than indulging in the convenience of the minibar.</p>

11. Spending at Minibars in Hotels

Minibars in hotels tend to be significantly overpriced. It's recommended to avoid them altogether because you can typically find similar items at local stores for much cheaper prices. Save money by purchasing what you need from nearby stores rather than indulging in the convenience of the minibar.

<p>Converting currency often involves hidden fees that travelers might not be aware of. Whether you're paying with cards or converting cash, these fees can add up. It's essential to understand the different ways you might be charged for currency conversion, as these fees can be somewhat invisible.</p>

12. Currency Conversion Fees

Converting currency often involves hidden fees that travelers might not be aware of. Whether you're paying with cards or converting cash, these fees can add up. It's essential to understand the different ways you might be charged for currency conversion, as these fees can be somewhat invisible.

<p>Purchasing expensive purebred dogs might seem prestigious, but shelters often have loving animals in need of homes at a fraction of the cost. Adopting from shelters can provide the same joy and companionship without the exorbitant price tag associated with purebred dogs. This will save you some money that you save or use for other valuable purchases.</p>

13. Pet Care fees

When leaving pets at home, the cost of their care can be a concern. Kennels can be expensive, and relying on friends or family might not always be an option for most people. Opting for house-sitting arrangements can provide free pet care at home while also potentially securing free accommodation abroad. Entrusting your pets to caring house-sitters during your travels can be a cost-effective alternative to professional pet care services.

<p>Guided tours vary in cost, and some might be more expensive than necessary. Researching tour options and costs in the destination area beforehand can help in finding more affordable options. In many places, booking tours upon arrival or through platforms like WithLocals can offer cheaper alternatives. Free walking tours, where guides work for tips, are another budget-friendly way to explore.</p>

14. Tour Guides

Guided tours vary in cost, and some might be more expensive than necessary. Researching tour options and costs in the destination area beforehand can help in finding more affordable options. In many places, booking tours upon arrival or through platforms like WithLocals can offer cheaper alternatives. Free walking tours, where guides work for tips, are another budget-friendly way to explore.

<p>Online travel booking platforms and comparison websites have made it easier for individuals to plan and book their trips, reducing the need for travel agents. Automation has made travel planning more accessible and convenient.</p>

15. Souvenir Purchases

Souvenirs can be a lovely way to remember a trip, but it's essential to be cautious. Items marketed as "local" might actually be mass-produced elsewhere and sold at inflated prices. Exploring multiple shops and looking for unique items not found everywhere can help avoid overpaying for generic souvenirs.

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How To Make Money Without a Job

Spending your money on some activities and stuff doesn’t always have to mean that you will lose it. On the contrary, following intelligent and wise steps can even get you into a position where spending also means saving. Here are a few helpful tips from an online frugal community. 1. Preventative Maintenance The number-one-voted response...

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<p>One step-parent allowed their 9-year-old stepdaughter to spend hours alone in her room with markers and papers, assuming she was drawing or making a <a href="https://parentportfolio.com/wordless-picture-books/">picture book</a>. However, the parent later discovered that the child had been using the family calendar to make cards for everyone for upcoming holidays and birthdays. Although the parent did not ask the child about it, they were proud of the child’s logic and long-term planning abilities.</p>

Frugal Living Tips: The Essential Guide To Start Saving Money

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We Found the Most Comfortable Travel Clothing for Your Next Flight, Cruise, and Long Car Ride — and Prices Start at $11

Including customer-loved sneakers and soft overalls

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Summer — a.k.a the best travel season — is around the corner. Finding comfortable travel clothing is a must, whether you’re heading out on a road trip, doing a cross-country train journey, or jetting off somewhere fabulous.

The key to staying comfortable when traveling? Loose fits, elastic waists, layers, and breathable fabrics. While that may sound like a recipe for fashion boredom, we guarantee you that Amazon’s selection of travel clothing is anything but. Below, you’ll find an editor-approved assortment of leggings, dresses, two-piece sets, overalls, sneakers, and more — all for under $45.

Best Amazon Travel Clothing Under $45

  • Yesno Loose Overalls , $26.39 with coupon (orig. $32.99)
  • Prettygarden Two-Piece Jogger Set , $31.19 (orig. $38.99)
  • Fullsoft High-Waisted Leggings , $11.33 with coupon (orig. $12.59)
  • Chouyatou Elastic Gingham Palazzo Pants , $22.90
  • Abboos Lightweight Sneakers , $32.29 with coupon (orig. $37.99)
  • Adidas Zip-Up Hoodie, $42 (orig. $49.18)
  • Libin Lightweight Athletic Joggers , $34.98
  • Athlisan Knit Two-Piece Set , $32.99
  • Merokeety Patterned Midi Skirt , $35.14 with coupon (orig. $36.99)
  • Hugoome Oversized Crop Top T-Shirt , $19.99
  • Hanes Seamless T-Shirt Bra , $12.64

Yesno Loose Overalls, $26 with coupon (Save 20%)

If you’re looking for something casual that goes beyond basics, check out these loose-fitting, 100 percent cotton overalls. We love how universal these are — with adjustable waist and shoulder straps, you’re pretty much guaranteed a comfortable fit customized to your body. Available in sizes S–3X, the overalls also come in 10 colors, including dark green and royal purple . 

One reviewer called these overalls “the perfect travel piece.” They wrote, “This piece went on a trip and was worn with various tops,” then added: “It’s comfortable, made of good material, and felt great during a walking tour.” 

Prettygarden Two-Piece Jogger Set, $31 (Save 20%)

Over 5,000 people agree that this two-piece set deserves five stars, and it’s easy to see why: It has a loose fit, affordable price point, and plenty of color options. With a roomy crewneck tee and pants outfitted with an elastic waist, this set is plenty comfortable enough to be worn on a plane. Plus, you can use the separates to add to outfit options on your trip.

One five-star reviewer explained :  “One of the standout features of this set is its lightweight design, which makes it perfect for traveling. I recently wore it on a long flight, and I couldn't have been more pleased with how comfortable and stylish it kept me throughout the journey.” They continued, writing, “The breathable fabric kept me feeling cool and relaxed, while the relaxed fit allowed for unrestricted movement — a must for those long hours on an airplane.”

Fullsoft High-Waisted Leggings, $11 (Save 26%)

Not only are these $11 leggings super soft, but they also are designed with a handy pocket large enough to hold keys or a phone. They’re extra stretchy, giving you optimal comfort during long journeys. Shoppers also love that the high waist actually stays up, while others appreciate that they’re not see-through. Best of all, there are summer-friendly colors like sage , purple , and light blue .

With over 3,000 Amazon shoppers having picked up a pair this month, it should come as no surprise that the leggings have received nearly 9,000 perfect ratings. One reviewer put it simply : “They will be great for traveling, an active tourist day, or running errands.” 

Be sure to head to Amazon to pick up these comfortable, stylish, and affordable travel clothes before you head on your next trip. 

Chouyatou Elastic Gingham Palazzo Pants, $23

Abboos women’s lightweight sneaker, $32 (save 15%), adidas zip-up hoodie, $42 (save 15%), libin lightweight athletic joggers, $35, athlisan knit two-piece set, $33, merokeety patterned midi skirt, $35 (save 5%), hugoome oversized crop top t-shirt, $20, hanes seamless t-shirt bra, $13, see more from people shopping.

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  1. Travel Cost Calculator

    Trip pricing calculator. Travelmath provides an online cost calculator to help you determine the cost of driving between cities. You can use this data to figure out a budget for a road trip. The driving calculation is based on the average fuel efficiency of your vehicle, and you can change the gas mileage in mpg or L/100 km to match your exact ...

  2. Cost of Driving Calculator

    Automatic estimates are provided for local gas prices and vehicle fuel efficiency in miles per gallon (mpg) or liters per 100 kilometers (L/100 km), based on the make and model of your car, SUV, or minivan. Don't let the economy and rising oil prices stop you from taking your next trip.

  3. Fuel Economy Trip Calculator

    In Step 2, you will enter the trip details including starting point, intermediate stops, and destination. Enter the Trip. You will be able to modify the route by dragging the route line on the map. The Trip Vehicles section above will be updated with the cost of fuel for the trip.

  4. How to Road Trip Across the US on a Budget (Updated 2024)

    In this post, we're going to break down the costs of one of my first big road trips. I took this trip during the launch of my book How to Travel the World on $50 a Day with the intention of keeping my daily costs below $50 USD.. After 116 days traveling around the United States on this trip, I spent $6,262.67 USD, or $53.98 USD per day.

  5. Your road trip calculator

    Travel tips. Best Time to Travel. Trips. KAYAK for Business. NEW; English Your trip calculator ... Estimates are based on an analysis of current and historical minimum roundtrip flight prices for one traveler and average car rental prices in the past 31 days. Actual prices may vary. Always check current prices and routes before booking.

  6. Gas Trip Calculator. Find lowest fuel prices & save

    Just hop on your GasBuddy App and enter your location to keep saving on gas. With over 150,000 gas stations nationwide in the GasBuddy network, you can get up-to-date changes on gas prices. Calculate the gas cost for your trip accurately and with ease by using GasBuddy. Beyond the Trip Cost Calculator: How to Save on Gas Money by Using GasBuddy

  7. How to Calculate Cost of Travel: 10 Steps (with Pictures)

    Put together all of the driving trips you plan to take to get a total traveling distance. 2. Divide the distance by your vehicle's mileage to find your fuel needs. Find out your vehicle's mileage rate and then use that number to divide the total distance that you plan to travel with that vehicle.

  8. Fuel Cost Calculator

    Fuel Cost Calculator. This calculator can estimate fuel cost according to the distance of a trip, the fuel efficiency of the car, and the price of gas using various units. The price of gas may go up or down, but it's always a major expense for most drivers. The average American driver spends about $3,000 per year on gas, according to the ...

  9. Driving Calculator

    Driving calculator. Travelmath provides driving information to help you plan a road trip. You can measure the driving distance between two cities based on actual turn-by-turn directions. Or figure out the driving time to see if you need to stop overnight at a hotel or if you can drive straight through. To stay within your budget, make sure you calculate the cost of driving based on your car's ...

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    The 2023 Toyota RAV4 Hybrid takes everything that has made this compact SUV popular over the years, like a comfortable ride and plenty of standard high-tech features, and added a fuel-efficient and quick-accelerating hybrid powertrain. It can get up to 41 mpg on the highway, which helps cut road trip costs. It was also a finalist for our Best Hybrid SUV for the Money award.

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    The new RAC Fuel Cost and Mileage Calculator can help you work out how much a journey will cost you in terms of fuel, so that you can budget accordingly. ... If you're thinking of travelling in Europe, find out more about our European breakdown cover, travel insurance and car hire excess insurance. If you're looking for peace of mind at ...

  12. Route planner: route calculation, detailed journey cost

    Car with caravan: this option adjusts travel times and toll costs. ... ViaMichelin can provide a detailed journey cost for any car or motorcycle route: fuel cost (with details on fuel costs for motorways and other roads) and toll costs (information for each toll used). If you have entered your vehicle model, the cost will be calculated ...

  13. Your road trip calculator

    Check out these road trip guides to see how other travelers have navigated the open road. Don't let rising flight and fuel costs get you down. Find out how much you could save - or spend - on your trip based on whether you fly or drive.

  14. Travel Inflation Price Tracker: April 2024

    High rental car prices were one of the biggest stories of pandemic-era travel. Though prices have leveled off, they are still up an astounding 39.3% versus the same month in 2019.

  15. Search Flights, Hotels & Rental Cars

    KAYAK is your one-stop destination for finding the best flights, hotels and rental cars across hundreds of travel sites. Compare prices, explore destinations and book your trip with KAYAK.

  16. Average Cost Of Travel Statistics For 2023

    Once at your destination, the daily average cost for travel in most major U.S. cities was $354.55 including a hotel, car rental and meals. [4] In 2023, prices are even higher due to continuing ...

  17. Car Rentals: Find Cheap Car Rentals & Rental Car Deals

    Save money on rental cars by searching for car rental deals on KAYAK. KAYAK searches for rental car deals on hundreds of car rental sites to help you find the cheapest car rental. Whether you are looking for an airport car rental or just a cheap car rental near you, you can compare discount car rentals and find the best deals faster at KAYAK.

  18. Mileage calculator

    Mileage calculator. Enter your route details and price per mile, and total up your distance and expenses. Routes are automatically saved. You can improve your MPG with our eco-driving advice. Read more information about car running costs in our driving advice section.

  19. Publication 463 (2023), Travel, Gift, and Car Expenses

    You travel by car from Denver to Mexico City and return. Your travel from Denver to the border and from the border back to Denver is travel in the United States, and the rules in this section apply. ... you can deduct travel costs of $1,069 (11 / 18 × $1,750), plus the full $4,939 for the expenses you had in Paris. Other methods.

  20. Rental Cars

    Explore More Travel. Search, price, and compare rental cars with Costco Travel. Our Low Price Finder shops all the coupons, codes, discounts and deals and returns the lowest price based on your search criteria.

  21. Travelmath trip calculator

    What is Travelmath? Travelmath is an online trip calculator that helps you find answers quickly. If you're planning a trip, you can measure things like travel distance and travel time.To keep your budget under control, use the travel cost tools. You can also browse information on flights including the distance and flight time. Or use the section on driving to compare the distance by car, or ...

  22. Mileage Calculator

    Mileage Calculator. Use the following mileage calculator to determine the travel distance, in terms of miles, and time taken by car to travel between two locations in the United States, disregarding traffic conditions. This mileage calculator estimates the number of driving miles between two locations in the United States.

  23. Home

    Costco Travel offers everyday savings on top-quality, brand-name vacations, hotels, cruises, rental cars, exclusively for Costco members.

  24. Hopper data shows travel price trends for the spring and summer

    Hopper's data shows prices for domestic flights will peak between May and June at $315 on average, then will gradually fall through the summer, reaching a low of $264 on average in September.

  25. 15 Expensive Travel Costs People Always Regret

    When renting a car, many travelers opt for additional insurance provided by the rental company to ensure peace of mind. However, this insurance can substantially increase the total cost of your ...

  26. Stock Markets, Business News, Financials, Earnings

    Stock Markets, Business News, Financials, Earnings - CNBC

  27. Is owning a car more about style to you or the cost to use it?

    Manual transmission and no frills…not even a radio. Very low initial cost, low cost easy maintenance, over 30 mpg. Perfect. Also lightweight and easy to tow behind a motorhome. Throw it in neutral and go. Perfect! Put nearly a half-million miles on that car then sold it for $500 and that guy put another 100k on it.

  28. Textravel

    Fiscal 2024 Travel Reimbursement Rates Employees. In-State or Out-of-State Meals and Lodging: Refer to the U.S. General Services Administration's (GSA's) federal Domestic Maximum Per Diem Rates, effective Oct. 1, 2023. If the city is not listed, but the county is listed, use the daily rate of the county.

  29. We Found the Most Comfortable Travel Clothing at Amazon

    Shop comfortable travel clothing while prices are under $45 at Amazon. ... Cruise, and Long Car Ride — and Prices Start at $11. Including customer-loved sneakers and soft overalls. By.

  30. Remote work cuts car travel and emissions, but hurts public transit

    Remote work could cut hundreds of millions of tons of carbon emissions from car travel - but at the cost of billions lost in public transit revenues, according to a new study. Using the latest data on remote work and transportation behavior since the pandemic upended work arrangements, researchers at the University of Florida, the ...