How to Build a Time Machine: A Step-by-Step Guide

Are you fascinated by the concept of time travel do you find yourself daydreaming about traveling to the past or future building a time machine may seem like a far-fetched idea, but with the right knowledge and dedication, it is possible. in this guide, we will take you through the step-by-step process of building your very own time machine..

How to Build a Time Machine: A Step-by-Step Guide

Step 1: Understanding the Theory of Time Travel

Before embarking on your time machine-building journey, it is crucial to familiarize yourself with the theory of time travel. Start by studying the works of renowned physicists such as Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking. Gain a deep understanding of concepts like wormholes, space-time continuum, and causality. This will lay a solid foundation for your time machine-building endeavor.

Step 2: Gathering the Required Materials

Building a time machine requires certain essential materials. Make sure you have the following items:

  • A high-powered energy source
  • A quantum flux capacitor
  • An advanced computer system
  • An electromagnetic field generator
  • A sturdy and well-insulated vessel

These materials will serve as the building blocks of your time machine, providing the necessary components for manipulating space and time.

Step 3: Assembling the Quantum Flux Capacitor

The quantum flux capacitor is a crucial component of any time machine. Follow these steps to assemble it:

  • Connect the high-powered energy source to the capacitor.
  • Using the advanced computer system, configure the flux settings to align with your desired time destination.
  • Ensure that the electromagnetic field generator is properly integrated with the capacitor.

Once your quantum flux capacitor is assembled, it will serve as the core mechanism for manipulating time within your time machine.

Step 4: Building the Time Vessel

The time vessel is the physical structure that will house your time machine. Consider the following when building it:

  • Choose a material that is resistant to extreme temperatures and electromagnetic interference.
  • Ensure the vessel is large enough to accommodate the required equipment.
  • Make it well-insulated to protect against potential disruptions in the space-time continuum.

Building a sturdy and reliable time vessel is crucial to the safety and effectiveness of your time machine.

Step 5: Testing and Safely Using Your Time Machine

Prior to using your time machine for actual time travel, it is essential to conduct thorough testing. Ensure all components are properly working and calibrated. Gradually increase the activation duration to prevent any untoward consequences. Once you are confident in the machine’s functionality, follow these guidelines for safe usage:

  • Set specific time coordinates and destinations.
  • Take necessary precautions to avoid altering historical events.
  • Always prioritize your safety and well-being.
  • Document your experiences and findings for future analysis.

Remember, time travel can have far-reaching consequences, so use your time machine responsibly and ethically.

Building a time machine may sound like science fiction, but with the right approach, it can become a reality. By understanding the theory of time travel, gathering the necessary materials, and assembling the key components, you can construct your very own time machine. Just remember to prioritize safety, conduct comprehensive testing, and use your time machine wisely. Happy time traveling!

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We Already Know How to Build a Time Machine, Scientists Say

It’s just a matter of time before we build one that can take us into the far future.

“When Mr. Padalka came back from his adventures, he found the Earth to be 1/44th of a second to the future of where he expected it to be,” explains J. Richard Gott, Princeton physicist and author of the 2001 book Time Travel in Einstein’s Universe . “He literally traveled ... into the future.”

While being a fraction of a second younger than if he had stayed on Earth isn’t mind-bending stuff, it nonetheless gave Padalka the distinction of the “current time traveler record,” according to Gott.

Although not exactly a plutonium-charged DeLorean , time travel is anything but fiction. Real astrophysicists like Gott are pretty sure they know how to build a time machine, and intense speed—much, much faster than Padalka’s orbital jaunt—is the key ingredient.

A Brief Crash Course on Time Travel

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Until the 20th century, time was believed to be completely immutable, and time travel a scientific impossibility. In the 1680s, Sir Isaac Newton’s thought time progressed at a consistent pace throughout the universe, regardless of outside forces or location. And for two centuries, the scientific world subscribed to Newton’s theory.

That is, until 26-year-old Albert Einstein came along.

In 1905, Einstein revealed his ideas on special relativity , using this framework for his theory of general relativity a decade later. Einstein’s universe-defining calculations introduced, well , lots of things, but also some concepts related to time. The most important being that time is elastic and dependent on speed, slowing down or speeding up depending on how fast an object—or person—is moving.

.css-2l0eat{font-family:UnitedSans,UnitedSans-roboto,UnitedSans-local,Helvetica,Arial,Sans-serif;font-size:1.625rem;line-height:1.2;margin:0rem;padding:0.9rem 1rem 1rem;}@media(max-width: 48rem){.css-2l0eat{font-size:1.75rem;line-height:1;}}@media(min-width: 48rem){.css-2l0eat{font-size:1.875rem;line-height:1;}}@media(min-width: 64rem){.css-2l0eat{font-size:2.25rem;line-height:1;}}.css-2l0eat b,.css-2l0eat strong{font-family:inherit;font-weight:bold;}.css-2l0eat em,.css-2l0eat i{font-style:italic;font-family:inherit;} “Without Einstein’s general theory of relatively, our GPS system wouldn’t be working.”

In 1971, four cesium-beam atomic clocks flew around the world and were then compared to ground-based clocks. The resulting minuscule time difference proved that Einstein was onto something. There’s also another technology, tucked inside your smartphone, that also validates Einstein’s theory.

“Without Einstein’s general theory of relatively, our GPS system wouldn’t be working,” says Ron Mallet, an astrophysicist and author of the book Time Traveler: A Scientist’s Personal Mission to Make Time Travel a Reality. “That’s also proof that Einstein’s [theories are] correct.”

But apart from this mutable version of time, Einstein also calculated the speed of light . At 300,000,000 meters (or 186,282 miles) per second, Einstein describes the figure as the “ultimate speed limit” and a universal constant no matter if one is sitting on a bench or traveling in a rocket ship.

The last bit of Einstein’s time-bending ideas suggest that gravity also slows time, meaning time runs faster where gravity is weaker, like the vast emptiness among massive celestial bodies like the sun, Jupiter, and Earth .

Fast forward a century later, and all of these theories—highly summarized, of course—now form the building blocks of astrophysics , and buried among all this expert-level math, Einstein also proved that time travel was possible.

The Subatomic Time Machine

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In fact, not only is time travel possible, it’s already happened—it just doesn’t look like your typical sci-fi film .

Returning to our time-traveling cosmonaut Padalka, his 1/44th-second jump into the future is so minuscule because he was only traveling at 17,000 miles per hour. That isn’t very fast, at least in comparison to the speed of light. But what would happen if we created something that could go much faster than geostationary orbit? We’re not talking a commercial jetliner (550 to 600 miles an hour) or a 21st-century rocket to the ISS (25,000 miles per hour), but something that could approach 186,282 miles per second.

“On a subatomic level, it’s been done,” says Mallett. “An example is ... the Large Hadron Collider . It routinely sends subatomic particles into the future.”

The particle accelerator has the ability to propel protons at 99.999999 percent the speed of light, a speed at which their relative time is moving about 6,900 times slower compared to their stationary human observers.

“The Large Hadron Collider ... routinely sends subatomic particles into the future.”

So, yes, we’ve been sending atoms into the future and we’ve been doing it for the last decade, but humans are another matter.

Gott says given that we propel particles nearly the speed of light on a regular basis, conceptually, it’s rather simple for humans to time travel into the future. “If you want to visit Earth in the year 3000,” Gott says, “all you have to do is to get on a spaceship and go 99.995 percent the speed of light.”

Let’s say a human is put on such a ship and sent to a planet that’s a little less than 500 light years away (for example, Kepler 186f ), meaning if they traveled at 99.995 percent of the speed of light, it would take them about 500 years to get there, since they are going at nearly the speed of light.

planet, astronomical object, outer space, earth, atmosphere, astronomy, space, atmospheric phenomenon, world, moon,

After a quick snack and a bathroom break, they would then turn around and head back to Earth, which would take another 500 years. So in total, it would take about 1,000 years for them to arrive safely back home. And, on Earth, it would be the year 3022.

However, since they were moving so fast, the resulting time dilation wouldn’t seem like 1,000 years for them, since their internal clock has slowed. “[Their] clock will be ticking at 1/100th of the rate of the clocks on Earth. [They] are only going to age about 10 years,” says Gott. While a millennium would pass for us, for them it would be a decade.

“If we [on Earth] were watching through the window, they would be eating breakfast veeeerrry slooooowly,” says Gott, “But to [them], everything would be normal.”

But there is a massive gulf between what is theoretical and what is real. So how do we overcome the immense technological challenges of how to build a time machine?

The Not-So-Distant Future of Human Time Travel

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Building a time-traveling spaceship may be the best place to start, but the engineering obstacles, at least for now, are enormous. For one, we are not even close to having a spaceship that can travel at the speed of light. The fastest spacecraft ever created is the Parker Solar Probe , which launched in 2018 with the mission to study the sun’s outer corona. It travels only .00067 percent the speed of light .

There’s also the enormous amount of energy that would be needed to propel a ship to go that fast. Gott suggests that highly efficient antimatter fuel could be the key; other world agencies and scientists also think such a fuel could be a potentially invaluable piece to interstellar travel .

But ensuring the safety of human cargo on such a futuristic mission would also be tricky. First of all, the ship would need to carry enough supplies—like food, water, and medicine— and be self-sufficient for the entire journey.

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Then there’s the whole acceleration thing. To make sure our hypothetical traveler wouldn’t be obliterated by overwhelming g forces, the ship would need to gradually and steadily accelerate. While steady 1g acceleration (like what we feel on Earth) for a long period of time would eventually get the ship to approach near speed of light, it would add to the length of the trip and minimize how far in the future one could go.

Using our 500-light-year planet example, Gott predicts that the steady acceleration of 1g up to near light speed would increase the aging of the time traveler to 24 years, “but you would still get to visit Earth in the year 3000,” says Gott.

To create a vehicle with these specifications would require a lot of time, resources, and money. But the same can be said for other massively ambitious experiments, like detecting gravitational waves and building the Large Hadron Collider. A time machine could be the world’s next scientific megaproject .

The Trouble of Going in Reverse

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But there is one big caveat to this theoretical portrait of real-world time travel— this machine doesn’t go in reverse . While Bill and Ted travel to the past to pick up Socrates with relative ease, in reality, scientists and researchers need to find a way to circumvent the rules of physics in order to travel back in time.

Wormholes , black holes, cosmic strings , and circulating light beams have all been suggested as potential solutions for time-traveling to the past. The main challenge that astrophysicists are grappling with is figuring out is how to beat a light beam to a point in spacetime and back.

“The technology isn’t far off ... we could do it in the next twenty years.”

Since the speed of light is the absolute maximum, physicists are concentrating on finding phenomena like wormholes, which could provide tunnel-like shortcuts that jump across curved spacetime and, in theory, beat a light beam to a particular point in spacetime.

While wormholes do work within the confines of Einstein’s theories of relativity, they have yet to be observed in space, and scientists have no concrete evidence that these galactic shortcuts would even work .

sky, galaxy, space, atmosphere, outer space, spiral galaxy, eye, astronomy, astronomical object, universe,

So while time traveling to the past may be the more exciting concept, scientists are much more likely to fling someone into the unknown future rather than the well-trodden past. But despite overwhelming odds—fiscal and scientific—Mallet believes the future of a time-traveling society is possible.

“What happened with going to the moon ... we wanted to go there, Kennedy asked for it, and there was proper funding so we got there within a decade,” Mallet says. “The technology isn’t far off. If the government and taxpayers wanted to pay for it, we could do it in the next 20 years.”

For now, wannabe time travelers will still have to look to science fiction for a time travel fix, with some movies being much more accurate than others.

“A good movie ... was the original Planet of the Apes ,” says Mallett. “The astronauts thought they had landed on another planet that was ruled by apes, but what they found out ... was that they had traveled so fast, that they had arrived into Earth’s future . That movie accurately depicts Einstein’s special theory of relativity.”

Oh ... spoilers.

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Matt is a history, science, and travel writer who is always searching for the mysterious and hidden. He's written for Smithsonian Magazine, Washingtonian, Atlas Obscura, and Arlington Magazine. He calls Washington D.C. home and probably tells way too many cat jokes. 

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How to build a time machine, from a university math professor

First, find a cylinder.

Every now and again, we all indulge in dreams about traveling in time. Wouldn’t it be wonderful to return to that specific point in the past to change a bad decision or relive an experience—those halcyon days of childhood, that night you won an Oscar—or to zip ahead to see how things turn out in the far future?

The mystery of time travel  is full of excitement and wonder —“But it’s not science,” I hear you say. You may also think that it is definitely not like any mathematics you learned at school. Well, you will be surprised to hear that it is.

Recently there has been a great deal of news around the discovery of gravitational waves . It is suggested that this experiment and future research could unlock  the secrets of the universe . One of the reasons why physicists believe this to be true is linked to other monumental scientific discoveries in the past—and the fact that we may have reached another unification moment and taken another step closer to a  theory of everything .

Towards a theory of everything

We have known since Isaac Newton’s day that mass is inextricably linked to gravity. His unification moment was first conjectured famously while he was sitting having afternoon tea under an apple tree in Woolsthorpe , when out of the blue an  apple fell on his head .

This incident made Newton think that the same force could be responsible for both the apple dropping to the ground and the moon falling towards the Earth in its orbit. He went on to show that it was true for all mass, and that all bodies attract each other due to gravity. In the tabloid newspapers of the time, it was announced: “We are just bodies forced to be attracted to each other by Newton’s gravitational interactions” and that “ Love is a gravitational law .”

Cue: Einstein

In the early 20th century, Einstein went further with his  general theory of relativity  and showed that mass and gravity are linked to time; yet another unification moment.

Einstein was born in 1879, and by 1905  had published a paper  that would change the way we look at the world. This paper makes a fundamental change to the way we look at light. Until then, no one had thought too much about the speed of light—it was just another universal constant that experimental physicists attempted to calculate with ever greater accuracy. There was little appreciation of how radically different light waves were from sound and water waves.

But by using mathematics you learned at school— Pythagoras’ theorem —and with a little help from Einstein’s time dilation formula , you can show that time will slow for someone who is moving.

Einstein’s theory says that if you want to slow time down—essentially, to time travel—you need to move fast, very fast! Imagine setting off on a mission from Earth in the year 2000, for example. You are scheduled to be away until 2032, but will be travelling at 95% the speed of light (around 285,000 km a second). The amazing thing is that, on your return, your watch would tell you that it is  2010, despite it being 2032 on Earth , and you’d be 22 years younger than anyone you left behind. That’s time dilation and it works at slower speeds, too, albeit to a much less profound degree.

So let’s go

But there’s a catch—285,000 km a second is very, very fast. The fastest land vehicle cannot even get to  1 km a second , and even a spaceship when escaping Earth’s atmosphere is traveling at a relatively pitiful 10 km a second. Even if we could reach these speeds, it is questionable whether we could survive  the stress on our bodies . So time travel into the future is possible, but a bit too difficult—for now. But what about the past?

I don’t know about you, but I always feel a bit cheated when I read articles on time travel. I’m told all these facts but no one tells me how to build a time machine. So as not to cheat you, here follows a design for just such a thing, with great thanks to  professor Frank Tipler . Tipler published a paper on how to build a time machine, a Tipler Cylinder, back in 1974. This machine would enable you to travel back in time.

First, you need a lot of money to buy a large cylinder. When I say large, I mean very large, perhaps 100 km long. The cylinder also needs to be at least the mass of the sun, but very densely packed together. You then need to start it rotating, faster and faster, until it’s rotating so fast that it starts to disturb the fabric of both space and time—and you would be able to detect a wash of gravity waves coming from this structure.

I also need to add a health warning, as coming close to such a dense structure would cause issues. The mass of the Earth pulls us down to its surface, but getting too close to an object this massive would be hugely dangerous—it would drag you towards it and squash you flat.

If you can get round this squashing problem, however, approach the rotating cylinder and start following its spin—as you get closer, strange things will start to happen. Your path, which normally inextricably moves you forward in time, changes, since moving around the cylinder in the direction of rotation will shift you back in time. The machine makes the direction of time  collapse into the past , so the longer you follow the machine’s spin, the further back in time you will go. To reset the movement to normal, simply move away from the cylinder, go back to Earth and you will be returned to the present—albeit a present in the past.

But be careful what you do there. Fiddle around with the past too much and—like Marty McFly in  Back To The Future —you may just break up your parent’s first date or even ruin your chances of being born. Time can be funny like that.

This post originally appeared at The Conversation . Follow @ConversationUS on Twitter. 

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How to Build a Time Machine

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By Maria Konnikova

To even begin to imagine the possibility of time travel your mind must be able to wrap itself around the notion of a...

When the seemingly unimaginable—at least to certain people—happened and Hillary Clinton lost the 2016 Presidential election , many of her supporters suddenly started asking questions about what went wrong: Could something have been done differently? What if her strategy had been more aggressive? What if she’d campaigned more in Wisconsin? What if she'd added Bernie Sanders to her ticket—or what if Sanders had won the nomination to begin with? What if the media had covered Donald Trump differently? What if? What if? When we think back and try to answer those questions, we’re thinking about building alternate histories based on the notion that we can somehow, miraculously, go back in time and do it all over.

Thinking about time travel may seem like something humans have been doing since the first caveman dropped the first rock on his foot. But, even to begin to imagine the possibility of time travel, your mind must be able to wrap itself around the notion of a past and a future. Otherwise, where would you be travelling, exactly? In his new book, “Time Travel,” James Gleick argues that before the invention of the printing press, less than six hundred years ago, notions of any sort of temporal dislocation were next to impossible; people saw the future as relatively similar to the past—large changes over time simply weren’t visible or accessible. We could travel over geographical distances, exploring unknown lands, but the exploration of time wasn’t on anyone’s mind. The furthest people went was to seek a personal prophecy. But that didn’t involve a vision of time travel so much as a desire to know what lay in store for you, personally; for the world at large, well, what you saw was what you got, now and forever.

After Gutenberg’s invention, the world changed: “Saving our cultural memory in something visible, tangible, and shareable,” Gleick writes. Now that the past could be recorded and accessed at will, it became much easier to understand that some sort of forward trajectory was possible. That view was cemented by the Industrial Revolution—when people could see just how different the world looked from how it had a decade earlier. “Before futurism could be born, people had to believe in progress,” Gleick writes. The first real time traveller, as we understand the notion today, H. G. Wells’s creatively named Time Traveller, appeared in 1895. (Gleick dismisses examples like Rip Van Winkle as mere precursors: they didn’t travel , actively; they slept, and time passed.)

Before long, it was difficult to imagine an existence in which the idea of travelling through time didn’t exist. It quickly permeated science, with Einstein’s theory of relativity and notions of how to surpass the speed of light; found its way into literature, with Virginia Woolf’s “stretching and warping” of time; and seeped into popular culture, with vanity exercises in building time capsules. Why did time travel become so central, so quickly? Part of the answer is surely that the most central part of time travel is the one we carry with us, always: our memory. For what is remembering something but travelling through time? Once the notion of time travel starts to come naturally to the human mind, it is supremely easy to assimilate it into our mode of thinking. We don’t have to do any mental calisthenics to fathom how it could come to pass. Memory enables personal time travel immediately. If you have no notion of the passage of time, you cannot project yourself to a future point in it. In recent years, it has become clear that the centrality of memory is even more extreme: the very way our memory works allows us to imagine different futures, not just recall what has taken place. Memory is the very stuff of time travel.

Time travel is as much a cultural staple now as it has ever been. It’s fodder for countless movies—as many people noted, “Back to the Future Part II” predicted the World Series victory of the Cubs and the rise of Trump . And it has become increasingly incorporated into research areas that are far removed from the physics where it originated. As psychologists study the workings of the human mind and memory, time travel has become a common element.

For some time, scientists have known that memory is anything but precise. It doesn’t record the past accurately, and it plays tricks on us. For decades, this was seen as a kind of design flaw. Now some researchers suspect that the fallibility of memory isn’t necessarily a quirk or negative side effect of neural wiring but a necessity for being able to imagine the future. At Harvard, Daniel Schacter, a psychologist who studies memory, proposes that thinking about the past is absolutely necessary for imagining the future. “Imagining the future depends on much of the same neural machinery that is needed for remembering the past,” he writes . What’s more, the fact that the past is flexible—that our memory “sins,” to borrow a word from Schacter’s writing—is what allows us to imagine things that have never happened. We recombine elements from what we recall into memories that have never taken place. The future is based on a realignment of what we know, not a straightforward recapitulation of it. Schacter calls this the constructive episodic simulation hypothesis. If our memory is too fixed, we cannot flexibly recombine elements. “Think of the brain as a fundamentally prospective organ that is designed to use information from the past and the present to generate predictions about the future,” he explains.

Indeed, Schacter’s own work and contributions from other laboratories suggest that people with amnesia aren’t able to do the most rudimentary exercises in future projection. One early patient , K.C., was found to be incapable of coming up with a single thing that might possibly happen to him in the future. Absent the ability to recollect episodes from his own life, he lost the ability to imagine future episodes that might take place. Not only is the past of a person with no memory inaccessible; his ability to think about the future is imperilled. Time travel, then, is ultimately—and paradoxically—an exercise in remembering. And without that capacity it simply cannot exist.

Clive Wearing was a prominent musician who, in 1985, lost his ability to remember. As far as he was concerned, only the last few seconds of any given day had actually happened. “It was as if every waking moment was the first waking moment,” his wife wrote. His journal forms a poignant narrative of his condition—variations of “I am awake” written every few minutes, and then just as assiduously crossed out and replaced by “this time properly awake” or “awoke for the first time, despite my previous claims.” It’s as profound a testament as ever to the power—and terror—of the present moment, amplified by the absence of memory. This is it: right now is forever. The feeling is pressing enough that it must be noted and catalogued. “To imagine the future was no more possible for Clive than to remember the past,” Oliver Sacks wrote in his Profile of Wearing for this magazine, in 2007.

Wearing’s amnesia came with benefits: he truly lived in the present moment. As Sacks points out, every moment was to him a new gift; every meeting with his wife, a revelation; every piece of good news, a source of incomparable joy. But he was forever stuck in the pre-time-travel era—and for him even the time travel of imagination was not possible. And that is a tragedy in its own right. Early in his book, Gleick explores one of the earliest conceptions of time travel, the Universe Rigid—a four-dimensional construct thought up by Wells. It’s a model of the world with time already built in, and so it is unchanging: past, present, and future all exist at once. “The Universe Rigid is a prison,” Gleick writes. “Only the Time Traveller can call himself free.” Without mental time travel, without a conception of the past, we remain, like Wearing, prisoners.

Gleick is not a believer in the feasibility of actual time travel, now or ever. “It does not exist. It cannot,” he writes. We cannot go back in time and change how Clinton approached the election. All we can do is learn from what happened, and wait for the chance to do it better. As the author Israel Zangwill put it, “There is no getting into the future, except by waiting.” Our memory is and always will be as good as time travel gets, and in the meantime time will do the travelling for us. Perhaps that’s not altogether a bad thing. Wells, the original time-travel creator, was disappointed by the future when it came, “as a child finding lumps of coal in the Christmas stocking.” It couldn’t compete with what he had imagined. Reality is no match for imagination—and our current reality has made that point all too clearly.

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Making a Time Machine

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Introduction: Making a Time Machine

Making a Time Machine

Step 1: The Frame - Part 1 - Basic Shape

The Frame - Part 1 - Basic Shape

Step 2: The Frame - Part 2 - the Door

The Frame - Part 2 - the Door

Step 3: The Frame - Part 3 - Putting It Together.

The Frame - Part 3 - Putting It Together.

Step 4: The Frame - Part 4 - the Roof

The Frame - Part 4 - the Roof

Step 5: Covering the Frame

Covering the Frame

Step 6: Lighting!

Lighting!

Step 7: A Blue Light

A Blue Light

Step 8: In Action!

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Science on Screen

How To Build A Time Machine

Gold Coast Arts Center Great Neck, NY

Ronald Mallett

Research Professor of Physics, University of Connecticut

Film director and animator

Director, HOW TO BUILD A TIME MACHINE

How to Build a Time Machine— Making time travel a reality

Program description.

The subjects and director of the film discuss time travel theory. Part of the 2018 National Evening of Science on Screen .

Presented At

Film synopsis.

Two men pursue lifelong fantasies in very different ways, both inspired by H.G. Wells' classic novel  The Time Machine. 

How to Build a Time Machine follows two men as they set out on a journey to build their own time machines. Rob Niosi is a stop-motion animator who has spent the last 13 years obsessively constructing a full-scale replica of the time machine prop from the 1960 adaptation of H.G. Wells' The Time Machine . It's his attempt to recapture the memory of seeing the film in theaters with his father. Dr. Ron Mallett is a theoretical physicist whose story begins with a tragedy. He was only 10 years old when his father died suddenly of a heart attack. Distraught, he sought solace in science-fiction. After reading The Time Machine , Ron dedicated his life to studying physics. He has since become a professor at the University of Connecticut and is now working on building a real time machine in the hopes that he might go back in time to save his father's life. 

About the Speaker

Prof. Ronald L. Mallett received his B.S., M.S. and Ph.D. in physics from Penn State. He worked for United Technologies from 1973 to 1975, and in 1975 joined the physics faculty at the University of Connecticut in Storrs, where he is currently research professor of physics. Prof. Mallett has published numerous papers on black holes and cosmology in professional journals. His breakthrough research on time travel has been featured extensively in the media around the world, including print media such as New Scientist , Die Zeit , GEO , the Boston Globe , the Hartford Courant , Rolling Stone magazine, and The Wall Street Journal , and broadcast media such as NPR’s This American Life , Science Busters , the History Channel, the National Geographic Channel, the Science Channel, ABC’s Good Morning America , NBC’s Today Show , and CNN. Prof. Mallett appeared in the feature-length documentary How to Build a Time Machine , which won Best Documentary at the 2017 New York City Sci-Fi Films.

Prof. Mallett’s recently published memoir Time Traveler: A Scientist’s Personal Mission to Make Time Travel a Reality has been translated into Korean, Chinese, and Japanese.

Rob Niosi began drawing and painting at a young age. When he was 8, he picked up his father’s 8mm home movie camera and began making short films. After studying filmmaking at New York's School Of Visual Arts, Rob began a career in film and video production. His credits include directing, producing, set design and construction, special effect make-up and cinematography but he is perhaps best known for his work as a stop-motion animator for such productions as The Reading Rainbow , Pee-wee’s Playhouse , and Peter Gabriel’s music videos.

His completed 12-year project, a full-scale artistic rendering of the Time Machine prop from the classic 1960 MGM film, is featured in the documentary How To Build A Time Machine .

Jay Cheel is a filmmaker from St. Catharines, Ontario. His feature debut, Beauty Day , premiered at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City as part of their Canadian Front Programming Series. The film was also an official selection at the Hot Docs International Film Festival and was nominated in the ‘Best Documentary’ category of the 2012 Gene Awards. His second feature, How to Build a Time Machine , premiered at the Hot Docs International Film Festival and went on the screen at AFI Docs, The Rotterdam International Film Festival, and DOC NYC. Jay is also the co-host of the Film Junk, the internet’s longest running film podcast.

Image that reads Space Place and links to spaceplace.nasa.gov.

Is Time Travel Possible?

We all travel in time! We travel one year in time between birthdays, for example. And we are all traveling in time at approximately the same speed: 1 second per second.

We typically experience time at one second per second. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

NASA's space telescopes also give us a way to look back in time. Telescopes help us see stars and galaxies that are very far away . It takes a long time for the light from faraway galaxies to reach us. So, when we look into the sky with a telescope, we are seeing what those stars and galaxies looked like a very long time ago.

However, when we think of the phrase "time travel," we are usually thinking of traveling faster than 1 second per second. That kind of time travel sounds like something you'd only see in movies or science fiction books. Could it be real? Science says yes!

Image of galaxies, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope.

This image from the Hubble Space Telescope shows galaxies that are very far away as they existed a very long time ago. Credit: NASA, ESA and R. Thompson (Univ. Arizona)

How do we know that time travel is possible?

More than 100 years ago, a famous scientist named Albert Einstein came up with an idea about how time works. He called it relativity. This theory says that time and space are linked together. Einstein also said our universe has a speed limit: nothing can travel faster than the speed of light (186,000 miles per second).

Einstein's theory of relativity says that space and time are linked together. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

What does this mean for time travel? Well, according to this theory, the faster you travel, the slower you experience time. Scientists have done some experiments to show that this is true.

For example, there was an experiment that used two clocks set to the exact same time. One clock stayed on Earth, while the other flew in an airplane (going in the same direction Earth rotates).

After the airplane flew around the world, scientists compared the two clocks. The clock on the fast-moving airplane was slightly behind the clock on the ground. So, the clock on the airplane was traveling slightly slower in time than 1 second per second.

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Can we use time travel in everyday life?

We can't use a time machine to travel hundreds of years into the past or future. That kind of time travel only happens in books and movies. But the math of time travel does affect the things we use every day.

For example, we use GPS satellites to help us figure out how to get to new places. (Check out our video about how GPS satellites work .) NASA scientists also use a high-accuracy version of GPS to keep track of where satellites are in space. But did you know that GPS relies on time-travel calculations to help you get around town?

GPS satellites orbit around Earth very quickly at about 8,700 miles (14,000 kilometers) per hour. This slows down GPS satellite clocks by a small fraction of a second (similar to the airplane example above).

Illustration of GPS satellites orbiting around Earth

GPS satellites orbit around Earth at about 8,700 miles (14,000 kilometers) per hour. Credit: GPS.gov

However, the satellites are also orbiting Earth about 12,550 miles (20,200 km) above the surface. This actually speeds up GPS satellite clocks by a slighter larger fraction of a second.

Here's how: Einstein's theory also says that gravity curves space and time, causing the passage of time to slow down. High up where the satellites orbit, Earth's gravity is much weaker. This causes the clocks on GPS satellites to run faster than clocks on the ground.

The combined result is that the clocks on GPS satellites experience time at a rate slightly faster than 1 second per second. Luckily, scientists can use math to correct these differences in time.

Illustration of a hand holding a phone with a maps application active.

If scientists didn't correct the GPS clocks, there would be big problems. GPS satellites wouldn't be able to correctly calculate their position or yours. The errors would add up to a few miles each day, which is a big deal. GPS maps might think your home is nowhere near where it actually is!

In Summary:

Yes, time travel is indeed a real thing. But it's not quite what you've probably seen in the movies. Under certain conditions, it is possible to experience time passing at a different rate than 1 second per second. And there are important reasons why we need to understand this real-world form of time travel.

If you liked this, you may like:

Illustration of a game controller that links to the Space Place Games menu.

A beginner's guide to time travel

Learn exactly how Einstein's theory of relativity works, and discover how there's nothing in science that says time travel is impossible.

Actor Rod Taylor tests his time machine in a still from the film 'The Time Machine', directed by George Pal, 1960.

Everyone can travel in time . You do it whether you want to or not, at a steady rate of one second per second. You may think there's no similarity to traveling in one of the three spatial dimensions at, say, one foot per second. But according to Einstein 's theory of relativity , we live in a four-dimensional continuum — space-time — in which space and time are interchangeable.

Einstein found that the faster you move through space, the slower you move through time — you age more slowly, in other words. One of the key ideas in relativity is that nothing can travel faster than the speed of light — about 186,000 miles per second (300,000 kilometers per second), or one light-year per year). But you can get very close to it. If a spaceship were to fly at 99% of the speed of light, you'd see it travel a light-year of distance in just over a year of time. 

That's obvious enough, but now comes the weird part. For astronauts onboard that spaceship, the journey would take a mere seven weeks. It's a consequence of relativity called time dilation , and in effect, it means the astronauts have jumped about 10 months into the future. 

Traveling at high speed isn't the only way to produce time dilation. Einstein showed that gravitational fields produce a similar effect — even the relatively weak field here on the surface of Earth . We don't notice it, because we spend all our lives here, but more than 12,400 miles (20,000 kilometers) higher up gravity is measurably weaker— and time passes more quickly, by about 45 microseconds per day. That's more significant than you might think, because it's the altitude at which GPS satellites orbit Earth, and their clocks need to be precisely synchronized with ground-based ones for the system to work properly. 

The satellites have to compensate for time dilation effects due both to their higher altitude and their faster speed. So whenever you use the GPS feature on your smartphone or your car's satnav, there's a tiny element of time travel involved. You and the satellites are traveling into the future at very slightly different rates.

Navstar-2F GPS satellite

But for more dramatic effects, we need to look at much stronger gravitational fields, such as those around black holes , which can distort space-time so much that it folds back on itself. The result is a so-called wormhole, a concept that's familiar from sci-fi movies, but actually originates in Einstein's theory of relativity. In effect, a wormhole is a shortcut from one point in space-time to another. You enter one black hole, and emerge from another one somewhere else. Unfortunately, it's not as practical a means of transport as Hollywood makes it look. That's because the black hole's gravity would tear you to pieces as you approached it, but it really is possible in theory. And because we're talking about space-time, not just space, the wormhole's exit could be at an earlier time than its entrance; that means you would end up in the past rather than the future.

Trajectories in space-time that loop back into the past are given the technical name "closed timelike curves." If you search through serious academic journals, you'll find plenty of references to them — far more than you'll find to "time travel." But in effect, that's exactly what closed timelike curves are all about — time travel

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There's another way to produce a closed timelike curve that doesn't involve anything quite so exotic as a black hole or wormhole: You just need a simple rotating cylinder made of super-dense material. This so-called Tipler cylinder is the closest that real-world physics can get to an actual, genuine time machine. But it will likely never be built in the real world, so like a wormhole, it's more of an academic curiosity than a viable engineering design.

Yet as far-fetched as these things are in practical terms, there's no fundamental scientific reason — that we currently know of — that says they are impossible. That's a thought-provoking situation, because as the physicist Michio Kaku is fond of saying, "Everything not forbidden is compulsory" (borrowed from T.H. White's novel, "The Once And Future King"). He doesn't mean time travel has to happen everywhere all the time, but Kaku is suggesting that the universe is so vast it ought to happen somewhere at least occasionally. Maybe some super-advanced civilization in another galaxy knows how to build a working time machine, or perhaps closed timelike curves can even occur naturally under certain rare conditions.

An artist's impression of a pair of neutron stars - a Tipler cylinder requires at least ten.

This raises problems of a different kind — not in science or engineering, but in basic logic. If time travel is allowed by the laws of physics, then it's possible to envision a whole range of paradoxical scenarios . Some of these appear so illogical that it's difficult to imagine that they could ever occur. But if they can't, what's stopping them? 

Thoughts like these prompted Stephen Hawking , who was always skeptical about the idea of time travel into the past, to come up with his "chronology protection conjecture" — the notion that some as-yet-unknown law of physics prevents closed timelike curves from happening. But that conjecture is only an educated guess, and until it is supported by hard evidence, we can come to only one conclusion: Time travel is possible.

A party for time travelers 

Hawking was skeptical about the feasibility of time travel into the past, not because he had disproved it, but because he was bothered by the logical paradoxes it created. In his chronology protection conjecture, he surmised that physicists would eventually discover a flaw in the theory of closed timelike curves that made them impossible. 

In 2009, he came up with an amusing way to test this conjecture. Hawking held a champagne party (shown in his Discovery Channel program), but he only advertised it after it had happened. His reasoning was that, if time machines eventually become practical, someone in the future might read about the party and travel back to attend it. But no one did — Hawking sat through the whole evening on his own. This doesn't prove time travel is impossible, but it does suggest that it never becomes a commonplace occurrence here on Earth.

The arrow of time 

One of the distinctive things about time is that it has a direction — from past to future. A cup of hot coffee left at room temperature always cools down; it never heats up. Your cellphone loses battery charge when you use it; it never gains charge. These are examples of entropy , essentially a measure of the amount of "useless" as opposed to "useful" energy. The entropy of a closed system always increases, and it's the key factor determining the arrow of time.

It turns out that entropy is the only thing that makes a distinction between past and future. In other branches of physics, like relativity or quantum theory, time doesn't have a preferred direction. No one knows where time's arrow comes from. It may be that it only applies to large, complex systems, in which case subatomic particles may not experience the arrow of time.

Time travel paradox 

If it's possible to travel back into the past — even theoretically — it raises a number of brain-twisting paradoxes — such as the grandfather paradox — that even scientists and philosophers find extremely perplexing.

Killing Hitler

A time traveler might decide to go back and kill him in his infancy. If they succeeded, future history books wouldn't even mention Hitler — so what motivation would the time traveler have for going back in time and killing him?

Killing your grandfather

Instead of killing a young Hitler, you might, by accident, kill one of your own ancestors when they were very young. But then you would never be born, so you couldn't travel back in time to kill them, so you would be born after all, and so on … 

A closed loop

Suppose the plans for a time machine suddenly appear from thin air on your desk. You spend a few days building it, then use it to send the plans back to your earlier self. But where did those plans originate? Nowhere — they are just looping round and round in time.

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Andrew May holds a Ph.D. in astrophysics from Manchester University, U.K. For 30 years, he worked in the academic, government and private sectors, before becoming a science writer where he has written for Fortean Times, How It Works, All About Space, BBC Science Focus, among others. He has also written a selection of books including Cosmic Impact and Astrobiology: The Search for Life Elsewhere in the Universe, published by Icon Books.

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Watch CBS News

How Trump's conviction could change the dynamics of the 2024 race

By Olivia Rinaldi , Jacob Rosen , Katrina Kaufman

Updated on: May 31, 2024 / 11:57 AM EDT / CBS News

Former President Donald Trump has been found guilty of 34 felony counts of falsifying business records in his Manhattan criminal trial, adding another layer of uncertainty to an already unprecedented campaign.

As a c onvicted felon , Trump is not prevented from continuing to campaign for president , since the Constitution does not prohibit candidates from running for president even if they are convicted of a crime. In fact, there is precedent for a candidate running from behind bars: In 1920, Socialist Party candidate Eugene V. Debs ran for president from a federal penitentiary in Atlanta.

Trump is the first former U.S. president to be found guilty of felonies, and the first major party candidate to run for office after being found guilty of a crime. Here's how his conviction could change the 2024 campaign:

How Trump can campaign after his conviction

Now that he's convicted, Trump is all but certain to appeal the decision handed down by the jury, and he is likely to be able to return to the campaign trail as the process plays out. 

The next development in the case will come at sentencing, currently scheduled for July 11. Justice Juan Merchan has wide discretion over when sentencing occurs and what the punishment looks like. Trump faces a maximum of up to four years in prison and a $5,000 fine for each of the 34 felony charges of falsification of business records. The sentencing options available to Merchan include prison, probation, conditional discharge, fines or house arrest.

The judge could put limitations on his travel, such as restricting Trump from leaving the state and taking his passport, but Merchan has said he doesn't want to interfere with his ability to campaign.

"I would think that the judge wouldn't dare interfere with his right to speak to the American public because it's the right of the voters to be informed as well," said John Coffee, a professor at Columbia Law School and an expert on corporate governance and white collar crime.

In a recent survey of dozens of cases brought by Manhattan District Attorney's Office in which falsifying business records was the most serious charge at arraignment, attorney and author Norm Eisen found that roughly one in 10 of those cases resulted in a sentence of incarceration.

"I think that is fascinating," said Caroline Polisi, a criminal defense attorney and professor at Columbia Law School. "A lot of commentators say the reason he won't be incarcerated is because the logistics of it with respect to the Secret Service would be too much. On the other hand, if you're saying he should be treated like any other defendant, we have a lot of data saying that 90% of other defendants would not get jail time in this situation."

The impact of the conviction on Trump's ability to campaign could largely hinge on what sentence Merchan ultimately hands down, and when Trump would serve it.

"In the context in which he is found guilty and then sentenced to no jail time, I don't think it's going to cause a bit of difference," added Polisi. "There might be some minor issues. He might not be able to vote for himself. But other than that, I don't think it's going to cause any problems."

When determining Trump's sentence, the judge could take into account his numerous gag order violations — which led Merchan to threaten him with jail time if the violations continued — and his lack of demonstrated remorse or respect for the legal system. Throughout the trial, Trump referred to Merchan as "conflicted" and "corrupt" and to the case itself as a "sham." 

"In New York, a 78-year-old defendant, who's a first time offender, committed a non-violent offense, and has an otherwise, well, distinguished record — in some regards being an ex-president is distinguished. In that kind of world, there'd be no chance of an incarceration sentence," said Coffee. Trump turns 78 on June 14. "They can use probation, they can use fines. But there may be a view of many judges that you have to show that no one's above the law, and even the future president should have a taste of prison."

Even if Merchan does order Trump to serve time behind bars, the sentence could be deferred until his appeal has run its course.

"In other cases, when you don't have someone running for the White House, it would be more or acceptable to put him immediately into incarceration," said Coffee. "You certainly could put special conditions on what he could do or put him under house arrest, but I think until we get to the actual election, we're going to have to let Donald Trump run around and campaign."

The conviction's possible impact on Trump's poll numbers and support

Trump has predicted that a conviction in this trial could boost his poll numbers. 

"Even if convicted, I think that it has absolutely no impact. It may drive the numbers up, but we don't want that. We want to have a fair verdict," Trump told CBS Pittsburgh in an interview earlier this month.

Trump's support among his Republican base has been remarkably resilient in the face of his various criminal cases. In the months following his four indictments last year, Trump maintained his commanding lead in the Republican primary, capturing the nomination despite the dozens of criminal charges he faced.

Many Trump supporters who CBS News has interviewed since the trial began have said a guilty conviction will not change how they vote in November, adopting the former president's grievances as their own.

"Stormy Daniels has already been reviewed and stuff. It's kind of coincidental," Michigan resident Lori Beyer said at a recent rally in Freeland, Michigan, adding she would vote for Trump regardless of the conviction. "I don't think it's going to impact it, as far as I'm concerned."

Whether a conviction changes the minds of voters who are not committed to the former president remains to be seen. A recent CBS News poll found that the majority of Americans believed Trump is "definitely or probably" guilty of the charges he faced in New York. The overwhelming majority of Democrats — 93% — believed Trump was guilty, while 78% Republicans said he was not. Independents were split, with 53% believing he was guilty and 47% saying he wasn't. 

Opinions about whether Trump was guilty or not were already highly partisan, according to Kabir Khanna, deputy director of elections and data analytics for CBS News. Most people who believed Trump was guilty also thought the jury would convict him, and vice versa. 

Additionally, Khanna said people who followed the trial closely were the most polarized in their views.

"Together, these factors could blunt the impact of the verdict on the views of an already divided public," Khanna said. "Some voters may be swayed by the news, but I wouldn't expect a sea change." 

Other polling supports that notion. A NPR/PBS NewsHour/Marist survey released Thursday found that 67% of registered voters nationwide said a Trump conviction would not make a difference in how they vote. Among independents, just 11% said a guilty verdict would make them less likely to vote for Trump.

The conviction also gives the Biden campaign a potentially potent new weapon in their arsenal: the ability to label Trump a convicted felon. Mr. Biden remained largely silent about the Trump trial while it was ongoing, but NBC News reported last week that he planned to become more aggressive about Trump's legal woes after the trial concluded, while acknowledging that Trump would be on the ballot regardless of how his legal cases played out.

Trump has used the trial to help boost his fundraising, and will likely look to capitalize on the conviction. The Trump campaign and Republican National Committee saw an influx of donations after jury selection began, with the two entities raising $76 million in April. His campaign had about $50 million cash on hand at the beginning of May as he prepared to get back out on the campaign trail after the trial.

The former president repeatedly used the developments in the trial to raise money, including when he was held in contempt for violating the gag order against him.

"I'd get arrested ONE MILLION TIMES before I'd let those filthy dogs get their hands on you," one typical fundraising appeal read. 

Trump's other criminal cases

The New York case might be the only one of Trump's four criminal prosecutions to reach a conclusion before voters cast their ballots in the fall, giving the guilty verdict added weight.

The two federal cases brought by special counsel Jack Smith remain in limbo. 

In Washington, D.C., Trump faces charges related to his actions to remain in power after the 2016 election. Trump has argued that he is immune from prosecution, and the Supreme Court is currently weighing his claim.

The high court heard arguments in the immunity dispute on April 26 and is expected to issue a decision on the matter before the end of the court's term, likely in June. If the case is allowed to move forward, there is a slim possibility that the district court could schedule the trial before November. If the justices side with Trump and find him immune from prosecution, the charges would be dropped.

In Florida, Trump faces federal charges stemming from his retention of classified documents after he left the White House. Judge Aileen Cannon, who was appointed by Trump, has indefinitely postponed the trial. She ruled in early May that picking a trial date would be "imprudent and inconsistent with the court's duty to fully and fairly consider" numerous unresolved pre-trial motions. Those motions include Trump's efforts to dismiss the case altogether, as well as issues related to what classified information can be revealed at trial.

In the third case that remains outstanding, Trump faces state charges related to the 2020 election in Fulton County, Georgia. The trial in that matter is also on hold as Trump seeks to have District Attorney Fani Willis removed from the case. Georgia's Court of Appeals recently granted Trump's appeal of a decision that had allowed her to remain, bringing the trial to a temporary halt.

Trump's two federal cases could largely be in voters' hands if they are not resolved by November, a fact that raises his personal stake in the outcome. If he wins and returns to the White House in January 2025, Trump could order the Justice Department to seek to drop the charges altogether.

Trump has pleaded not guilty in all of the criminal cases against him.

  • Donald Trump

More from CBS News

Some Black Americans find irony in Trump's reaction to guilty verdict

Views of Trump trial unchanged following verdict — CBS News poll

Full transcript of "Face the Nation," June 2, 2024

Wisconsin fake elector on why he signed phony electoral document for Trump

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This Astrophysicist Professor Claims He Has An Equation For Time Travel

T he idea of time travel has fascinated people for a long time now. Numerous books and films have been written or directed around this idea. According to Earth.com, one such book named The Time Machine written by HG Wells sparked interest about time travel in the mind of an astrophysicist professor named Ron Mallet. He embarked on a seemingly unbelievable quest to achieve this objective. Now, he finally claims to have made an equation for the same. Professor Mallett’s fascination with time travel and its equation has its origins in a traumatising childhood experience. When the Professor was just ten years old, his father, a television repairman who fostered his son’s love of science, tragically passed away from a heart attack. A young Mallett was devastated to the core and sought solace in books.

Wells’s opening lines became the Professor’s life mantra: “Scientific people know very well that Time is only a kind of Space. And why cannot we move in Time as we move about in the other dimensions of Space?” This profound question ignited Mallett’s scientific journey and he dedicated himself to understanding the nature of time, determined to find a way to revisit the past and see his beloved father once more.

The Professor made decades of research into black holes and Einstein’s theories of relativity his basis for devising the time travel equation. A black hole is a huge circular area in space where the gravity surrounding the centre is so powerful that it pulls everything into it, even light. The theory of relativity is an explanation of how speed affects mass, time, and space. The theory includes a solution for the speed of light to define the relationship between energy and matter. It means that small amounts of mass (m) can be interchangeable with enormous amounts of energy (E), as defined by the classic equation E = mc^2.

Mallett’s blueprint for a time machine centres on what he terms “an intense and continuous rotating beam of light” to manipulate gravity. His device would make use of a ring of lasers to mimic the spacetime-distorting effects of a black hole.

The Professor's source of inspiration is his late father.

How to build a time machine

time travel machine how to make

Mathematics Education Primary and Secondary PGCE, Newcastle University

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Steve Humble does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organisation that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond their academic appointment.

Newcastle University provides funding as a member of The Conversation UK.

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time travel machine how to make

Every now and again, we all indulge in dreams about travelling in time. Wouldn’t it be wonderful to return to that specific point in the past to change a bad decision or relive an experience – those halcyon days of childhood, that night you won an Oscar – or to zip ahead to see how things turn out in the far future.

The mystery of time travel is full of excitement and wonder – “But it’s not science,” I hear you say. You may also think that it is definitely not like any mathematics you learned at school. Well, you will be surprised to hear that it is.

At present there is a great deal of news around the discovery of gravitational waves . It is suggested that this experiment and future research could unlock the secrets of the universe . One of the reasons why physicists believe this to be true is linked to other monumental scientific discoveries in the past – and the fact that we may have reached another unification moment and taken another step closer to a theory of everything .

Towards a theory of everything

We have known since Isaac Newton’s day that mass is inextricably linked to gravity. His unification moment was first conjectured famously while he was sitting having afternoon tea under an apple tree in Woolsthorpe , when out of the blue an apple fell on his head .

time travel machine how to make

This incident made Newton think that the same force could be responsible for both the apple dropping to the ground and the moon falling towards the Earth in its orbit. He went on to show that it was true for all mass and that all bodies attract each other due to gravity. In the tabloid newspapers of the time, it was announced: “We are just bodies forced to be attracted to each other by Newton’s gravitational interactions” and that “ Love is a gravitational law ”.

Cue: Einstein

In the early 20th century, Einstein went further with his general theory of relativity and showed that mass and gravity are linked to time; yet another unification moment.

Einstein was born in 1879, and by 1905 had published a paper that would change the way we look at the world. This paper makes a fundamental change to the way we look at light. Until then, no one had thought too much about the speed of light – it was just another universal constant that experimental physicists attempted to calculate with ever greater accuracy. There was little appreciation of how radically different light waves were from sound and water waves.

time travel machine how to make

But by using mathematics you learned at school – Pythagoras’ theorem – and with a little help from Einstein’s time dilation formula you can show that time will slow for someone who is moving.

Einstein’s theory says that if you want to slow time down – essentially, to time travel – you need to move fast, very fast! Imagine setting off on a mission from Earth in the year 2000, for example. You are scheduled to be away until 2032, but will be travelling at 95% the speed of light (around 285,000km a second). The amazing thing is that, on your return, your watch would tell you that it is 2010, despite it being 2032 on Earth , and you’d be 22 years younger than anyone you left behind. That’s time dilation and it works at slower speeds, too, albeit to a much less profound degree.

So let’s go

But there’s a catch – 285,000km a second is very, very fast. The fastest land vehicle cannot even get to 1km a second and even a spaceship when escaping Earth’s atmosphere is travelling at a relatively pitiful 10km a second. Even if we could reach these speeds, it is questionable whether we could survive the stress on our bodies . So time travel into the future is possible, but a bit too difficult – for now. But what about the past?

I don’t know about you but I always feel a bit cheated when I read articles on time travel. I’m told all these facts but no one tells me how to build a time machine. So as not to cheat you, here follows a design for just such a thing, with great thanks to Professor Frank Tipler . Tipler published a paper on how to build a time machine, a Tipler Cylinder, back in 1974. This machine would enable you to travel back in time.

time travel machine how to make

First, you need a lot of money to buy a large cylinder. When I say large, I mean very large, perhaps a 100km long. The cylinder also needs to be at least the mass of the sun, but very densely packed together. You then need to start it rotating, faster and faster, until it’s rotating so fast that it starts to disturb the fabric of both space and time – and you would be able to detect a wash of gravity waves coming from this structure.

I also need to add a health warning, as coming close to such a dense structure would cause issues. The mass of the Earth pulls us down to its surface, but getting too close to an object this massive would be hugely dangerous – it would drag you towards it and squash you flat.

If you can get round this squashing problem, however, approach the rotating cylinder and start following its spin – as you get closer, strange things will start to happen. Your path, which normally inextricably moves you forward in time, changes, since moving around the cylinder in the direction of rotation will shift you back in time. The machine makes the direction of time collapse into the past , so the longer you follow the machine’s spin, the further back in time you will go. To reset the movement to normal, simply move away from the cylinder, go back to Earth and you will be returned to the present – albeit a present in the past.

But be careful what you do there. Fiddle around with the past too much and – like Marty McFly in Back To The Future – you may just break up your parent’s first date or even ruin your chances of being born. Time can be funny like that.

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Trump Has Been Convicted. Here’s What Happens Next.

Donald J. Trump has promised to appeal, but he may face limits on his ability to travel and to vote as he campaigns for the White House.

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Donald J. Trump in a dark suit, red tie and white shirt.

By Jesse McKinley and Maggie Astor

  • May 30, 2024

The conviction of former President Donald J. Trump on Thursday is just the latest step in his legal odyssey in New York’s court system. The judge, Juan M. Merchan, set Mr. Trump’s sentencing for July 11, at which point he could be sentenced to as much as four years behind bars, or to probation.

It won’t stop him from running for president, though: There is no legal prohibition on felons doing that . No constitutional provision would stop him even from serving as president from a prison cell, though in practice that would trigger a crisis that courts would almost certainly have to resolve.

His ability to vote — for himself, presumably — depends on whether he is sentenced to prison. Florida, where he is registered, requires felons convicted there to complete their full sentence, including parole or probation, before regaining voting rights. But when Floridians are convicted in another state, Florida defers to the laws of that state, and New York disenfranchises felons only while they are in prison.

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The Trump Manhattan Criminal Verdict, Count By Count

Former President Donald J. Trump faced 34 felony charges of falsifying business records, related to the reimbursement of hush money paid to the porn star Stormy Daniels in order to cover up a sex scandal around the 2016 presidential election.

“Because Florida recognizes voting rights restoration in the state of conviction, and because New York’s law states that those with a felony conviction do not lose their right to vote unless they are incarcerated during the election, then Trump will not lose his right to vote in this case unless he is in prison on Election Day,” said Blair Bowie, a lawyer at the Campaign Legal Center, a nonprofit watchdog group.

Mr. Trump will almost certainly appeal his conviction, after months of criticizing the case and attacking the Manhattan district attorney, who brought it, and Justice Merchan, who presided over his trial.

Long before that appeal is heard, however, Mr. Trump will be enmeshed in the gears of the criminal justice system.

A pre-sentencing report makes recommendations based on the defendant’s criminal record — Mr. Trump had none before this case — as well as his personal history and the crime itself. The former president was found guilty of falsifying business records in relation to a $130,000 payment to Stormy Daniels, a porn star who says she had a brief sexual tryst with Mr. Trump in 2006, in order to buy her silence.

At the pre-sentence interview, a psychologist or social worker working for the probation department may also talk to Mr. Trump, during which time the defendant can “try to make a good impression and explain why he or she deserves a lighter punishment,” according to the New York State Unified Court System.

The pre-sentencing report can also include submissions from the defense, and may describe whether “the defendant is in a counseling program or has a steady job.”

In Mr. Trump’s case, of course, he is applying — as it were — for a steady job as president of the United States, a campaign that may be complicated by his new status as a felon. Mr. Trump will likely be required to regularly report to a probation officer, and rules on travel could be imposed.

Mr. Trump was convicted of 34 Class E felonies, New York’s lowest level , each of which carry a potential penalty of up to four years in prison. Probation or home confinement are other possibilities that Justice Merchan can consider.

That said, Justice Merchan has indicated in the past that he takes white-collar crime seriously . If he did impose prison time, he would likely impose the punishment concurrently, meaning that Mr. Trump would serve time on each of the counts he was convicted of simultaneously.

If Mr. Trump were instead sentenced to probation, he could still be jailed if he were later found to have committed additional crimes. Mr. Trump, 77, currently faces three other criminal cases: two federal, dealing with his handling of classified documents and his efforts to overturn the 2020 election , and a state case in Georgia that concerns election interference.

Mr. Trump’s lawyers can file a notice of appeal after sentencing, scheduled for July 11 at 10 a.m. And the judge could stay any punishment during an appeal, something that could delay punishment beyond Election Day.

The proceedings will continue even if he wins: Because it’s a state case, not federal, Mr. Trump would have no power as president to pardon himself .

Jesse McKinley is a Times reporter covering upstate New York, courts and politics. More about Jesse McKinley

Maggie Astor covers politics for The New York Times, focusing on breaking news, policies, campaigns and how underrepresented or marginalized groups are affected by political systems. More about Maggie Astor

Our Coverage of the Trump Hush-Money Trial

Guilty Verdict : Donald Trump was convicted on all 34 counts  of falsifying records to cover up a sex scandal that threatened his bid for the White House in 2016, making him the first American president to be declared a felon .

What Happens Next: Trump’s sentencing hearing on July 11 will trigger a long and winding appeals process , though he has few ways to overturn the decision .

Reactions: Trump’s conviction reverberated quickly across the country  and around the world . Here’s what voters , New Yorkers , Republicans , Trump supporters  and President Biden  had to say.

The Presidential Race : The political fallout of Trump’s conviction is far from certain , but the verdict will test America’s traditions, legal institutions and ability to hold an election under historic partisan tension .

Making the Case: Over six weeks and the testimony of 20 witnesses, the Manhattan district attorney’s office wove a sprawling story  of election interference and falsified business records.

Legal Luck Runs Out: The four criminal cases that threatened Trump’s freedom had been stumbling along, pleasing his advisers. Then his good fortune expired .

Donald Trump is convicted of a felony. Here's how that affects the 2024 presidential race

Having been convicted of 34 felonies, Donald Trump cannot own a gun, hold public office or even vote in many states

NEW YORK -- Having been convicted of 34 felonies, Donald Trump cannot own a gun, hold public office or even vote in many states.

But in 158 days, voters across America will decide whether he will return to the White House to serve another four years as the nation's president.

Trump's conviction in his New York hush money trial on Thursday is a stunning development in an already unorthodox presidential election with profound implications for the justice system and perhaps U.S. democracy itself.

But in a deeply divided America, it's unclear whether Trump's status as someone with a felony conviction will have any impact at all on the 2024 election. Trump remains in a competitive position against President Joe Biden this fall, even as the Republican former president now faces the prospect of a prison sentence in the run-up to the November election.

In the short term at least, there were immediate signs that the unanimous guilty verdict was helping to unify the Republican Party’s disparate factions as GOP officials in Congress and in state capitals across the country rallied behind their presumptive presidential nominee, while his campaign expected to benefit from a flood of new fundraising dollars.

Standing outside the courtroom, Trump described the verdict as the result of a “rigged, disgraceful trial.”

“The real verdict is going to be Nov. 5 by the people," Trump said, referring to Election Day. “This is long from over.”

The immediate reaction from elected Democrats was muted by comparison, although the Biden campaign issued a fundraising appeal within minutes of the verdict suggesting that the fundamentals of the election had not changed.

“We're THRILLED that justice has finally been served,” the campaign wrote. “But this convicted criminal can STILL win back the presidency this fall without a huge surge in Democratic support.”

There has been some polling conducted on the impact of a guilty verdict, although such hypothetical scenarios are notoriously difficult to predict.

A recent ABC News/Ipsos poll found that only 4% of Trump’s supporters said they would withdraw their support if he’s convicted of a felony, though an additional 16% said they would reconsider it.

On the eve of the verdict, the Trump campaign released a memo from its polling team suggesting that the impact of the trial is “already baked into the race in target states.”

Trump campaign advisers argued the case would help them motivate their core supporters. So many donations came into WinRed, the platform the campaign uses for fundraising, that it crashed. Aides quickly worked to set up a backup platform to collect money pouring in.

Trump headed Thursday night to a fundraising event scheduled before the verdict, according to a person familiar with his plans who was not authorized to speak publicly.

His two most senior campaign advisers, Susie Wiles and Chris LaCivita, were not with him in New York, but in Palm Beach, Florida, where the campaign is headquartered.

And while it may take days or weeks to know for sure, Trump's critics in both parties generally agreed that there may not be much political fallout, although some were hopeful that the convictions would have at least a marginal impact in what will likely be a close election.

Sarah Longwell, founder of Republican Voters Against Trump, who conducts regular focus groups, suggested the guilty verdict may help Biden on the margins by pushing so-called “double haters” — a term used to describe voters who dislike Trump and Biden — away from Trump.

But more than anything, she suggested that voters simply haven't been following the trial very closely.

“The best thing about the trial ending is that it ended," Longwell said, describing the courtroom proceeding as a distraction from more serious issues in the campaign. “There will now be an opportunity to focus the narrative on who Trump is and what a second Trump term would look like.”

Republican pollster Neil Newhouse predicted that the trial may ultimately have little impact in a lightning-fast news environment with several months before early polls open.

“Voters have short memories and even shorter attention spans,” Newhouse said. “Just as the former president’s two impeachments have done little to dim Trump’s support, this guilty verdict may be overshadowed in three weeks by the first presidential debate.”

The judge set sentencing for July 11, just four days before the scheduled start of the Republican National Convention in Milwaukee.

Each of the falsifying business records charges carries up to four years behind bars, though prosecutors have not said whether they intend to seek imprisonment. Nor is it clear whether the judge — who earlier in the trial warned of jail time for gag order violations — would impose that punishment even if asked.

Trump will be able to vote in Florida, where he established residency in 2019, if he is not in prison on Election Day.

And imprisonment would not bar Trump from continuing his pursuit of the White House.

Trump’s daughter-in-law Lara Trump, who was with the former president in court this week and also serves as co-chair of the Republican National Committee, said in a Fox News Channel interview before the verdict that Trump would still try to campaign for the presidency if convicted.

If Trump is given a sentence of home confinement, she said, “We will have him doing virtual rallies and campaign events if that is the case. And we’ll have to play the hand that we’re dealt."

There are no campaign rallies on the calendar for now, though Trump is expected to hold fundraisers next week.

Biden himself has yet to weigh in.

He was spending the night at his family’s beach house in Rehoboth Beach, Delaware, after marking the anniversary of his son Beau’s death earlier in the day at church.

Texas voter Steven Guarner, a 24-year-old nurse, said he’s undecided on who he'll vote for in the upcoming election.

Guarner, an independent, said the verdict will be a deciding factor for him once he studies the details of the trial. He didn't think it would sway the many voters who are already decided on the Biden-Trump rematch, however.

“I think his base is the type that might not care much or might agree with him about the court system,” Guarner said of Trump.

Indeed, Republican officials from Florida to Wisconsin to Arkansas and Illinois condemned the verdict as a miscarriage of justice by what they described as a politically motivated prosecutor and blue-state jury.

Brian Schimming, chairman of the Republican Party of Wisconsin’s executive committee, called the case against Trump a “sham” and a “national embarrassment.”

“There was no justice in New York today,” Schimming charged.

And Michael Perez Ruiz, a 47-year-old who was ordering food shortly after the verdict at Miami's Versailles restaurant, an icon of the city's GOP-leaning Cuban American community, said he would continue to stand by Trump.

“I would vote for him 20 times,” Perez Ruiz said.

AP writers Emily Swanson and Zeke Miller in Washington; Jill Colvin and Michelle L. Price in New York; Todd Richmond in Madison, Wisconsin; Adriana Gomez Licon in Miami; and Valerie Gonzalez in McAllen, Texas, contributed.

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How hardcore mosquito experts fight summer’s most annoying pest

An Everglades wildlife biologist, adventure-travel pros and entomologists share their best strategies

As the weather warms up and humidity increases, mosquitoes are hatching in backyards across the country, eager to victimize innocent barbecue-goers and home gardeners everywhere.

Strong insect repellent may never go out of style, but it’s far from the only option for combating summer’s most annoying interlopers. We asked seasoned mosquito experts — from entomologists to adventure-travel gurus — how they fight mosquitoes in their own backyards. Here’s what they advise.

Layer on the protection

“I’m going to sound like a boring entomologist and suggest what the CDC recommends,” says Louisa Messenger, a medical parasitologist and entomologist who teaches at the University of Nevada at Las Vegas. “Personal protection,” she says, is your first line of defense, including EPA-approved insect repellent containing 25 percent DEET and wearing long-sleeve shirts and pants that have been treated with insecticide, “usually permethrin.”

Richard Campbell, the founder of adventure travel company 10Adventures, agrees that nothing beats covering up. He and his family spend the summer months deep in the Canadian Rockies, where the mosquitoes can get surprisingly vicious. Since they lay eggs near or in water, in the mountains “you have almost perfect breeding grounds,” with all the lakes, rivers and boggy areas, explains Campbell. In some areas, especially just below the tree line near water, he says, “most bug spray is useless.” The trick, then, is to not leave any skin exposed, particularly in the most vulnerable spots. “They love my ankles,” he says, which is why he often wears two pairs of socks.

Down in the swamps of Florida, protective measures can get even more extreme. Pete Corradino, a wildlife biologist and owner of Everglades Day Safari, says the tour groups that his company leads are encouraged to load up on DEET repellent and wear hats with nets over them to cover the face and neck. Outside of that, it’s a matter of adapting — by now, Corradino says, “a couple of mosquito bites for me is something I can tolerate.”

Dump or treat standing water

If you’ve battled mosquitoes, you surely know that even the tiniest amount of standing water — where the females lay their eggs and the babies develop — can harbor the enemy.

Messenger says homeowners with pools should chemically treat the water with the standard course of chemicals, including chlorine. When not in use, pools should still be maintained and cleaned regularly, as “mosquitoes are much less likely to breed in clean water without any debris,” she says.

People with outdoor planters that gather water, “need to dump those out or potentially treat them with insecticide,” though Messenger says to be wary of chemical treatments as they could also impact the plant’s health.

For people with ponds, bird baths and even puddles on their property, Daniel M. Parker, an associate professor of public health at the University of California at Irvine, offers another solution: Small fish such as guppies and dragonfly larvae are natural predators to mosquito larva. Adding some to the water will help with population control.

Choose plants wisely

Parker also cautions against keeping certain plants in your garden. Varieties such as bromeliads, pitcher plants and certain types of hollow bamboo can hold small bodies of water on their leaves or in crevices and are therefore a favorite home for mosquito larvae.

David Price, an entomologist and director of technical services at pest-management company Mosquito Joe, says he avoids boxwoods, evergreen shrubs and sunshine ligustrum shrubs, all of which can harbor mosquitoes. He advises pruning back any thick bushes in your yard, which offer mosquitoes protection as well as a possible place to lay their eggs.

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Make some dietary changes

Starchy vegetables, salty and spicy food — these may all make you more attractive to the feasting insects. “Mosquitoes aren’t attracted to the food itself,” says Nicole Carpenter, president of Black Pest Prevention in Charlotte, but they may be attracted to the changes in body chemistry that comes from eating certain things. “For example, spicy foods make your body produce more carbon dioxide.” And the carbon dioxide we exhale is how mosquitoes locate us. “Drinking alcohol, especially beer, also contributes to releasing more carbon dioxide,” Carpenter says. Plus, it can make you run a bit hotter, and elevated body temperatures are yet another thing that can attract mosquitoes, says UNLV’s Messenger.

Be careful about scents

Letisha Guerrero, founder of the Nouveau Lifestyle, a wellness and travel blog, has ample experience traveling internationally, often to places known to be buggy. One time in Honduras an allergic reaction to mosquito bites led to hospitalization, so now Guerrero is hypercautious. She reports that ditching sweet-smelling soaps and lotions in favor of lemongrass and citronella-scented products has made her less of a draw. She says using essential oils like Murphy’s Natural lemon eucalyptus oil spray and Nantucket Spider Original Bug Repellent for People have helped her keep mosquitoes at bay.

Messenger says there’s no evidence to support certain scents making you more — or less — prone to bites. However, “if you’re putting lotion on, it’s changing the composition of bacteria on your skin,” and that process, rather than the perfume within a certain product, “[can alter] how you smell to mosquitoes,” making you more or less of a magnet for them.

Schedule outdoor time wisely

Tracy Ellis, a San Diego-based entomologist with FarmSense, an agtech company, avoids exercising outdoors at dusk or dawn. “I try to get my stuff done when I’m not a perfect victim,” she says, pointing out that mosquitoes have an easier time finding you when you’re “sweaty and dirty and breathing hard.” Even if you’re just going out for a walk on a humid summer evening, Ellis suggests showering first and bringing repellent. She agrees that a product with DEET works best, but says the botanical, all natural stuff is still better than nothing.

Corradino, the owner of Everglades Day Safari, echoes that going outside in the evening really should be avoided in super buggy areas like his Fort Myers, Fla., neighborhood. “Once it’s dusk, then you usually head indoors because that’s when the mosquitoes can get pretty bad,” he says.

Sometimes, you just have to let the mosquitoes win.

Stacey Lastoe is a writer in Brooklyn who covers lifestyle topics.

More from The Home You Own

The Home You Own is here to help you make sense of the home you live in.

DIYs you can actually do yourself: Don’t be intimidated by those home projects. Consider which renovations add the most value to your home (including the kitchen and bathroom ), what you can actually get done in a weekend , and everything in between.

Your home + climate change: Whether you’re trying to prepare your home for an electric vehicle or want to start composting , we’re here to help you live more sustainably .

Plants and pets: Your furry friends and greenery add more life to your spaces. For your green thumb, find tips for saving money on houseplants and how to keep your plants alive longer. Pets can make a house a home, but stopping your cats from scratching the furniture isn’t always easy.

Keeping your home clean and organized: We breakdown the essential cleaning supplies you need, and point out the 11 germy spots that are often overlooked. Plus, hear hacks from professional organizers on maximizing counter space ,

Maintaining your home: Necessary home maintenance can save your thousands in the long run. From gutter cleaning and preparing your fireplace for winter, to what to do if your basement floods .

Contact us: Looking to buy your first home? Do you have questions about home improvement or homeownership? We’re here to help with your next home project.

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Donald Trump was convicted on felony charges. Will he go to prison?

A New York jury's historic conviction of Donald Trump on felony charges means his fate is now in the hands of the judge he has repeatedly ripped as "corrupt" and "incompetent."

Two experts told NBC News that it's unlikely Trump will be imprisoned based on his age, lack of a criminal record and other factors — and an analysis of thousands of cases found that very few people charged with the same crime receive jail time. But a third expert told NBC News he believes it is "substantially" likely Trump could end up behind bars.

Trump was convicted on 34 counts of falsifying business records , a class E felony that is punishable by a fine, probation or up to four years in prison per count. During the trial, Judge Juan Merchan threatened to put Trump behind bars for violating his gag order, but it’s unclear whether the former president will face similar consequences now. It's expected that any sentence would be imposed concurrently, instead of consecutively.

Former federal prosecutor Chuck Rosenberg, an NBC News analyst, said it's unlikely that Merchan would sentence Trump, 77, to any jail time, given his age and his status as a first-time, nonviolent offender. "I’d be very surprised if there's any sentence of incarceration at all," Rosenberg said. “Of course, he did spend a good bit of time insulting the judge who has the authority to incarcerate him.”

The next step for Trump at this point is his sentencing, which is set for July 11. Manhattan District Attorney Alvin Bragg would not comment Thursday on what type of sentence he’d seek, saying his office would do its speaking in court papers in the weeks ahead.

Arthur Aidala, a former prosecutor in the Brooklyn district attorney's office who's now a defense lawyer, said the judge will most likely use some of the time before sentencing to research similar cases to determine what the median sentence is.

"He wants to know before he sentences someone what the typical sentence is," Aidala said, and would consider other factors, like Trump's age and lack of a criminal record, while also taking into account the lack of injury caused by the crime. Aidala said he believes whatever punishment Merchan comes up with would be "a non-jail disposition."

An analysis conducted by Norm Eisen, who worked for House Democrats during Trump’s first impeachment, found that roughly 1 in 10 people who have been convicted of falsifying business records are imprisoned and that those cases typically involved other crimes.

Ron Kuby, a veteran New York criminal defense lawyer, took a different view.

“Judge Merchan is known for being a harsh sentencer when it comes to white-collar crimes committed by people who have wealth and privilege and power,” he said.

Kuby added he believes "it is substantially likely Judge Merchan will sentence Trump to jail or prison time," despite the logistical and practical complications that locking up a person with Secret Service protection would entail.

Kuby said that's because the criminal scheme went on for over a year and included a number of bad acts on Trump's part.

“It’s an entire course of conduct he was involved with — not just one bad decision,” he said.

Trump, however, most likely doesn't have to worry about missing the Republican National Convention, where he's expected to accept the party's nomination, even though it's taking place just days after his sentencing. Kuby said he'd most likely be able to remain free while he appeals the conviction.

Trump's behavior during the trial, including his flouting Merchan's gag order by making comments about witnesses and the jury, isn't likely to be a factor in the sentencing decision, Kuby said. It's also highly unlikely that comments that appeared to be aimed at sidestepping the gag order by Republican officials who attended the trial as Trump's guests will figure into Merchan's reasoning, Kuby added.

"If the judge is smart, he'd stay away from that," Kuby said. "The best way for judges not to get reversed in a sentencing is to stick to the facts and circumstances of the crimes and conviction."

Rosenberg said that despite Trump’s frequent criticisms of Merchan, which he likened to “a batter who’s been yelling at the umpire from before the first pitch,” Merchan appeared to run “a clean and fair trial.”

Rosenberg and Kuby agreed that Trump would appeal the verdict. Kuby said that could delay Trump's serving whatever punishment Merchan doles out for years, even if the appeal is ultimately unsuccessful.

His first appeal will be to the state Appellate Division, a midlevel appeals court, and it will almost certainly not decide the appeal until after the November election, Kuby said. If he loses there, he could then appeal to the state's highest court, the Court of Appeals. A loss there would be followed by a request to the U.S. Supreme Court to hear the case.

If all that fails, Kuby said, he could then try turning to federal court in another attempt to eventually get the case before the Supreme Court.

The appeals process typically takes a long time — Kuby said he had one client who staved off prison time for six years — but there's another potential complicating factor in this case.

"If he becomes president of the United States, he cannot be incarcerated in a state prison" while he's in office, Kuby said, because it could prevent him from fulfilling his constitutional duties. If he lost his appeals, "by the time he leaves office — if he leaves office — he'd be ready to be incarcerated," he said.

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Dareh Gregorian is a politics reporter for NBC News.

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Adam Reiss is a reporter and producer for NBC and MSNBC.

Money blog: Emirates boss says Heathrow is like a 'Second World War airport'

The president of Emirates airlines has said Heathrow Airport is "not good enough" and looks like a Second World War airport. Read this and the rest of today's consumer and personal finance news below - and leave your thoughts in the comments box.

Tuesday 4 June 2024 11:26, UK

  • Heathrow is like a Second World War airport, says Emirates boss
  • Gas prices hit highest level since December
  • Earnings of M&S and Sainsbury's bosses revealed
  • Glitch that delayed 500,000 benefit payments 'fixed', HMRC says

Essential reads

  • The five different types of shopping addict
  • How much are student loans, when do you start paying back and what is the interest?
  • Your rights when deliveries or returns don't arrive - and why leaving instructions could jeopardise them
  • Think twice before buying your holiday clothes from Zara
  • Where is all the money going? Here's who is really responsible for concert tickets going crazy
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Ask a question or make a comment

Company records have revealed the bosses of M&S and Sainsbury's were paid about £5m each last year. 

M&S chief executive Stuart Machin received a record £4.73m payout - a 75% increase on his earnings the previous year. 

Of this, £908,000 was fixed pay while the rest was performance-related. 

Co-chief executive Katie Bickerstaffe, who has a four-day working pattern, took home a £4.41m payout. 

Her earnings were 85% higher than last year. 

The pair have overseen a successful turnaround for the retailer, which saw its profits surge by 58% in the 52 weeks to 30 March. 

Meanwhile, Sainsbury's chief executive Simon Roberts took home £4.91m in the last year - a dip of 5.8% on last year's payout. 

Mr Roberts's base salary increased by 3.8% to £933,000, but his bonus decreased. 

Sainsbury's saw its pre-tax profit rise by 1.6%. 

By Sarah Taaffe-Maguire , business reporter

Good news for motorists - the oil price has fallen again today to a low not seen since the start of February. 

The international oil price benchmark, a barrel of Brent crude, costs $77.25 - down from $92 in April. It's lowered amid speculation that major oil producing countries in the OPEC+ (the Organisation of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) group will increase exports later this year.

A pound still buys roughly the same amount of euro as it has over the past week (€1.1743) and more dollars ($1.2776) than it has in the past two months. 

The index of most valuable companies on the London Stock Exchange - the FTSE 100 - is down 0.63% this morning. One of the biggest fallers is the bank Standard and Chartered. Its share price is down more than 3% after reports that it's being accused in a New York court of funding terrorism, an accusation it denies.

The president of Emirates airlines has said Heathrow Airport is "not good enough" and looks like a Second World War airport. 

Sir Tim Clark said the airport was putting its shareholders before running a world-class business. 

"I was at Heathrow the other day and walking out of our lounge the ceiling height is awful," he said. 

"It looks like a utilitarian structure, post-Second World War. It is just not good enough." 

He argued Terminal 3, where Emirates is based, should be redesigned to make it better for passengers. 

Heathrow is "seriously lagging behind" in its customer experience, Mr Clark said. 

"It's an old airport. I'm afraid it's very difficult. You need to open up the whole terminal. Where we are based, new airports are being built employing the latest technologies to streamline the process of all the customer-facing elements. That is not the case at Heathrow."

Heathrow told The Telegraph: "Every pound we want to spend on improving airport facilities needs approval from our regulator. Despite having our proposals cut back in the current regulatory settlement, we will still invest £3.6bn upgrading our infrastructure over the next three years.

"We will continue to invest and to work with our airline partners to build an airport fit for the future."

Wholesale costs for natural gas have hit their highest levels across Europe since December last year - threatening a future spike in energy bills.

The cause is a key Norwegian export operation being shut down due to a cracked pipe.

The damage, discovered aboard the Sleipner Riser platform, prompted wider  energy  infrastructure to be halted including the Nyhamna processing plant which exports gas to the UK, pipeline operator Gassco said.

Alfred Hansen, the company's head of pipeline system operations, told the Reuters news agency: "This has big consequences from a supply perspective."

Read more on this, and how there's better new on oil prices, below ...

Yesterday we talked about the dopamine hit you get when shopping - and spoke to a psychologist about how you might learn to control it.

But what if it's gone too far? That's what we're discussing in the second of this four-part series this week.

A  piece by the Royal College of Psychiatrists , published by Cambridge University Press in 2012, said shopping addiction, often referred to as compulsive buying disorder (CBD), "was first described by the German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin almost a century ago".

He called the disorder "oniomania" (from the Greek onios, meaning "for sale", and mania, meaning "insanity").

A hundred years on, the World Health Organisation doesn't classify shopping addiction as a mental illness, unlike gambling, video game addiction, pyromania and kleptomania - but psychologists are taking note of the subject.

According to a 2021 paper in the Journal of Behavioral Addictions, potential  symptoms  of a compulsive shopping disorder include:

  • Preoccupation with shopping (an irresistible urge to buy a product);
  • Reduced control over buying behaviours;
  • Buying products but not using them for the purposes they were intended to serve;
  • Using shopping to regulate mood;
  • Negative consequences afterwards such as guilt, shame, debt, relationship problems;
  • Negative mood and cognitive symptoms if attempting to stop.

Donald W Black, a prominent American psychiatrist, has written extensively on the subject. He says the "disorder has a lifetime prevalence of 5.8% in the US general population".

There has been much debate about whether CBD is a valid mental illness - amid concerns of over medicalising. However, a growing number of rehab clinics are offering treatment.

The Priory's website says: "If you are addicted to spending money, and are finding that it is affecting your finances, relationships, health and quality of life, this is just as serious as any other addiction."

The Abbey Care Foundation says signs you may have a shopping addiction include juggling multiple credit cards, hiding extravagant spending from your family, hoarding things you don't use and getting angry at anyone who tries to get in the way of your spending.

The foundation even breaks down different types of shopping addict:

  • Bargain-seekers:  These people have a shopping habit of actively seeking items on sale. When they spot items for less than their perceived value, they purchase them. This behaviour makes them feel like they are winning and relieves shopping addiction. 
  • Collectors:  This shopping addiction entails seeking out different versions of a particular item. The desire to collect or complete a set of similar items drives this addiction. 
  • Show-offs:  The compulsive behaviour is driven by the desire to buy high-value items. In some cases, the individual's self-worth or self-esteem is attached to making such purchases. 
  • Trophy-hunters:  The shopping addiction is for rare, expensive items. The individual intentionally looks for the most expensive or rarest items and gains satisfaction in buying them. 
  • Shopping bulimics:  This shopping addiction is like the eating disorder known as bulimia nervosa. Individuals categorised as shopping bulimics make large, frequent purchases only to request later refunds. They do so to cushion themselves from the financial consequences of making such large purchases. 

Join us tomorrow as we speak to a woman for who this used to be all too real - leading her into £40,000 of debt.

Passengers will soon be able to book British Airways flights in a few clicks as part of a major revamp by the airline. 

The company told The Telegraph it wanted to style its website on the "three clicks and you can check out" approach of Amazon. 

British Airways said it was spending £7bn on a revamp, which would see the company's app and website relaunched. 

Other changes will include new planes, revamped seats and refurbished airport lounges. 

Customers will also be able to rebook, claim a refund and cancel flights online. 

The new website is currently being trialled by people flying from London Gatwick to Montpellier in France, Antalya in Turkey and Bari, Cagliari and Catania in Italy. 

Basically, student finance is a government-financed loan that covers university students' tuition fees and living costs for the duration of their study. 

There are two main types of loan, tuition and maintenance - we'll take each in turn. 

Tuition fees 

Undergraduate courses in England generally cost students about £9,250 a year.

That's a lot for a young person (or their family) to cover, so the government offers to pay that outright, direct to the university, on their behalf. 

This is known as your tuition loan - we'll come to how this is repaid later. 

Maintenance loans

These help students cover day-to-day costs, such as rent and food, while studying.

For the 2024-25 academic year, students can borrow anywhere between £4,327 and £13,348 for each year of study - depending on where you live, where you're going to study and your family's financial situation. 

See how much you could be entitled to by clicking here .

The various plans 

Here's where it gets more complicated. What plan you may be on is listed below... 

Why no Plan 3? The repayment plan for postgraduate loans in England and Wales is actually Plan 3.

In the UK, you pay nothing up front, and the amount you pay back each month is determined by how much you earn. 

You'll repay a percentage of your income over the threshold for your type of loan, depending on how often you get paid - see the table below for the thresholds. 

With those thresholds in mind, you'll repay either:

  • 9% of your income over the threshold if you're on Plan 1, 2, 4 or 5
  • 6% of your income over the threshold if you're on a postgraduate loan (Plan 3)

If you're on multiple plans, the rules are slightly different.

If you don't have a postgraduate loan, you'll repay 9% of your income over the lowest threshold out of the plan types you have.

In this scenario, you'll only have a single repayment taken each time you get paid, even if you're on more than one plan type.

But if you do have a postgraduate loan, you'll repay 6% of your income over the postgraduate loan threshold  and 9% of your income over the lowest threshold for any other plan types you have.

You don't need to worry about paying it off each month yourself if you're employed - the money will be deducted from your earnings before it hits your account, like income tax. 

Interest rates

Like any loan, you'll be paying back what you owe plus a little bit on the top - known as interest. 

With student loans, that extra on the top isn't so little right now, as it is linked to retail price rises.

  • 6.25% if you're on Plan 1
  • 7.8% if you're on Plan 2
  • 6.25% if you're on Plan 4
  • 7.8% if you're on Plan 5
  • 7.8% if you're on a postgraduate loan plan (Plan 3)

Read other entries in our Basically... series...

Royal Mail's incoming owner has refused to rule out stamp price hikes under his leadership. 

In fact, Czech billionaire Daniel Kretinsky seemed to suggest there might be more increases to come. 

"I can't make unconditional commitments," he told The Times when questioned on the topic. 

"[If] your circulation is 50% of what it was … you either need to go home, or you need to increase the unit price and hope that people will pay for it. Because if not, you are making losses.

"You can be loss-making for a year or two, but you can't be in a loss for 20 years. It's simple maths. There's no mystery to it." 

First class stamp prices have more than doubled since 2018 from 67p to £1.35. 

The businessman, nicknamed the Czech Sphinx, had his £3.6bn offer accepted by the postal service's parent company, International Distribution Services, last week. 

It said the agreement included a series of "contractual commitments" to protect public service aspects of the Royal Mail - such as its universal service obligation to "one-price-goes-anywhere" first-class post six days a week.

Many were shocked by the deal, with Royal Mail reporting losses of £1m a day in recent years. 

You can read more about the Czech Sphinx below...

A major error that meant 500,000 families did not receive their scheduled child benefit today has been "fixed", HMRC has said.

In a post on X, HMRC said affected families would get the money on Wednesday morning, two days after the payments were due...

Multiple readers have got in touch to say they had been affected by the problem, which meant almost a third of payments scheduled for today were not made.

Reader Susan1984 said: "When should we expect to receive the missing payment? This has left not just me but so many more families with kids completely stuck for food and fuel this morning."

Earlier, HMRC apologised and said it was working urgently to resolve the issue, which would not affected payments scheduled for tomorrow (see post at 14.41).

Child benefit is usually paid every four weeks on a Monday or a Tuesday at a rate of £25.60 for an eldest or only child and £16.95 for each additional child.

The bank has today announced wholesale rate hikes across its residential and buy-to-let mortgage product ranges. 

The new rates, which come into effect tomorrow, will be applied largely across its two, three and five-year fixed rates for purchase and remortgage. 

However, a number of rates available to existing HSBC customers looking to switch will also see increases. 

Brokers say more lenders could increase rates this week. 

This is thanks to an uptick in swap rates due to hopes fading for a cut to the base rate set by the Bank of England in June. 

Here is what some industry insiders told Newspage...

The dreaded 'higher for longer' scenario is no longer a mere notion: it's the harsh reality for many. It looks like these elevated rates are here to stay for the foreseeable future. Ranald Mitchell, director at Charwin Private Clients
We can now expect more awkward conversations with clients who have read that rates are coming down and inflation is under control. HSBC have been fairly competitive recently so the hope is that they just need to turn the tap off a little to catch up and this isn't an upward trend that will continue into the summer period. David Stirling, independent financial advisor at Mint Mortgages and Protection
HSBC is one of several lenders to already have announced changes this week. Even with the higher rates on offer, I would not suggest waiting in the hope of a drop any time soon. My advice to borrowers is take control of the situation and start the process of arranging a new deal as early as possible, secure a rate and, if a better one materialises, change to it. Simon Bridgland, broker/director at Release Freedom

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time travel machine how to make

April 1, 2007

How to Build a Time Machine

It wouldn't be easy, but it might be possible

By Paul Davies

T ime travel has been a popular science-fiction theme since H. G. Wells wrote his celebrated novel The Time Machine in 1895. But can it really be done? Is it possible to build a machine that would transport a human being into the past or future?

For decades, time travel lay beyond the fringe of respectable science. In recent years, however, the topic has become something of a cottage industry among theoretical physicists. The motivation has been partly recreational--time travel is fun to think about. But this research has a serious side, too. Understanding the relation between cause and effect is a key part of attempts to construct a unified theory of physics. If unrestricted time travel were possible, even in principle, the nature of such a unified theory could be drastically affected.

Our best understanding of time comes from Einstein's theories of relativity. Prior to these theories, time was widely regarded as absolute and universal, the same for everyone no matter what their physical circumstances were. In his special theory of relativity, Einstein proposed that the measured interval between two events depends on how the observer is moving. Crucially, two observers who move differently will experience different durations between the same two events.

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The effect is often described using the twin paradox. Suppose that Sally and Sam are twins. Sally boards a rocket ship and travels at high speed to a nearby star, turns around and flies back to Earth, while Sam stays at home. For Sally the duration of the journey might be, say, one year, but when she returns and steps out of the spaceship, she finds that 10 years have elapsed on Earth. Her brother is now nine years older than she is. Sally and Sam are no longer the same age, despite the fact that they were born on the same day. This example illustrates a limited type of time travel. In effect, Sally has leaped nine years into Earth's future.

THE EFFECT, KNOWN AS time dilation, occurs whenever two observers move relative to each other. In daily life we dont notice weird time warps, because the effect becomes dramatic only when the motion occurs at close to the speed of light. Even at aircraft speeds, the time dilation in a typical journey amounts to just a few nanoseconds--hardly an adventure of Wellsian proportions. Nevertheless, atomic clocks are accurate enough to record the shift and confirm that time really is stretched by motion. So travel into the future is a proved fact, even if it has so far been in rather unexciting amounts.

To observe really dramatic time warps, one has to look beyond the realm of ordinary experience. Subatomic particles can be propelled at nearly the speed of light in large accelerator machines. Some of these particles, such as muons, have a built-in clock because they decay with a definite half-life; in accordance with Einstein's theory, fast-moving muons inside accelerators are observed to decay in slow motion. Some cosmic rays also experience spectacular time warps. These particles move so close to the speed of light that, from their point of view, they cross the galaxy in minutes, even though in Earth's frame of reference they seem to take tens of thousands of years. If time dilation did not occur, those particles would never make it here.

Speed is one way to jump ahead in time. Gravity is another. In his general theory of relativity, Einstein predicted that gravity slows time. Clocks run a bit faster in the attic than in the basement, which is closer to the center of Earth and therefore deeper down in a gravitational field. Similarly, clocks run faster in space than on the ground. Once again the effect is minuscule, but it has been directly measured using accurate clocks. Indeed, these time-warping effects have to be taken into account in the Global Positioning System. If they werent, sailors, taxi drivers and cruise missiles could find themselves many kilometers off course.

At the surface of a neutron star, gravity is so strong that time is slowed by about 30 percent relative to Earth time. Viewed from such a star, events here would resemble a fast-forwarded video. A black hole represents the ultimate time warp; at the surface of the hole, time stands still relative to Earth. This means that if you fell into a black hole from nearby, in the brief interval it took you to reach the surface, all of eternity would pass by in the wider universe. The region within the black hole is therefore beyond the end of time, as far as the outside universe is concerned. If an astronaut could zoom very close to a black hole and return unscathed--admittedly a fanciful, not to mention foolhardy, prospect--he could leap far into the future.

My Head Is Spinning

SO FAR I HAVE DISCUSSED travel forward in time. What about going backward? This is much more problematic. In 1948 Kurt Gdel of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, N.J., produced a solution of Einstein's gravitational field equations that described a rotating universe. In this universe, an astronaut could travel through space so as to reach his own past. This comes about because of the way gravity affects light. The rotation of the universe would drag light (and thus the causal relations between objects) around with it, enabling a material object to travel in a closed loop in space that is also a closed loop in time, without at any stage exceeding the speed of light in the immediate neighborhood of the particle. Gdel's solution was shrugged aside as a mathematical curiosity--after all, observations show no sign that the universe as a whole is spinning. His result served nonetheless to demonstrate that going back in time was not forbidden by the theory of relativity. Indeed, Einstein confessed that he was troubled by the thought that his theory might permit travel into the past under some circumstances.

In science fiction, wormholes are sometimes called stargates; they offer a shortcut between two widely separated points in space. Jump through a hypothetical wormhole, and you might come out moments later on the other side of the galaxy. Wormholes naturally fit into the general theory of relativity, whereby gravity warps not only time but also space. The theory allows the analogue of alternative road and tunnel routes connecting two points in space. Mathematicians refer to such a space as multiply connected. Just as a tunnel passing under a hill can be shorter than the surface street, a wormhole may be shorter than the usual route through ordinary space.

The wormhole was used as a fictional device by Carl Sagan in his 1985 novel Contact . Prompted by Sagan, Kip S. Thorne and his co-workers at the California Institute of Technology set out to find whether wormholes were consistent with known physics. Their starting point was that a wormhole would resemble a black hole in being an object with fearsome gravity. But unlike a black hole, which offers a one-way journey to nowhere, a wormhole would have an exit as well as an entrance.

In the Loop

FOR THE WORMHOLE to be traversable, it must contain what Thorne termed exotic matter. In effect, this is something that will generate antigravity to combat the natural tendency of a massive system to implode into a black hole under its intense weight. Antigravity, or gravitational repulsion, can be generated by negative energy or pressure. Negative-energy states are known to exist in certain quantum systems, which suggests that Thorne's exotic matter is not ruled out by the laws of physics, although it is unclear whether enough antigravitating stuff can be assembled to stabilize a wormhole.

Soon Thorne and his colleagues realized that if a stable wormhole could be created, then it could readily be turned into a time machine. An astronaut who passed through one might come out not only somewhere else in the universe but somewhen else, too--in either the future or the past.

To adapt the wormhole for time travel, one of its mouths could be towed to a neutron star and placed close to its surface. The gravity of the star would slow time near that wormhole mouth, so that a time difference between the ends of the wormhole would gradually accumulate. If both mouths were then parked at a convenient place in space, this time difference would remain frozen in.

Suppose the difference were 10 years. An astronaut passing through the wormhole in one direction would jump 10 years into the future, whereas an astronaut passing in the other direction would jump 10 years into the past. By returning to his starting point at high speed across ordinary space, the second astronaut might get back home before he left. In other words, a closed loop in space could become a loop in time as well. The one restriction is that the astronaut could not return to a time before the wormhole was first built.

A formidable problem that stands in the way of making a wormhole time machine is the creation of the wormhole in the first place. Possibly space is threaded with such structures naturally--relics of the big bang. If so, a supercivilization might commandeer one. Alternatively, wormholes might naturally come into existence on tiny scales, the so-called Planck length, about 20 factors of 10 as small as an atomic nucleus. In principle, such a minute wormhole could be stabilized by a pulse of energy and then somehow inflated to usable dimensions.

ASSUMING THAT the engineering problems could be overcome, the production of a time machine could open up a Pandora's box of causal paradoxes. Consider, for example, the time traveler who visits the past and murders his mother when she was a young girl. How do we make sense of this? If the girl dies, she cannot become the time traveler's mother. But if the time traveler was never born, he could not go back and murder his mother.

Paradoxes of this kind arise when the time traveler tries to change the past, which is obviously impossible. But that does not prevent someone from being a part of the past. Suppose the time traveler goes back and rescues a young girl from murder, and this girl grows up to become his mother. The causal loop is now self-consistent and no longer paradoxical. Causal consistency might impose restrictions on what a time traveler is able to do, but it does not rule out time travel per se.

Even if time travel isnt strictly paradoxical, it is certainly weird. Consider the time traveler who leaps ahead a year and reads about a new mathematical theorem in a future edition of Scientific American . He notes the details, returns to his own time and teaches the theorem to a student, who then writes it up for Scientific American . The article is, of course, the very one that the time traveler read. The question then arises: Where did the information about the theorem come from? Not from the time traveler, because he read it, but not from the student either, who learned it from the time traveler. The information seemingly came into existence from nowhere, reasonlessly.

The bizarre consequences of time travel have led some scientists to reject the notion outright. Stephen Hawking of the University of Cambridge has proposed a chronology protection conjecture, which would outlaw causal loops. Because the theory of relativity is known to permit causal loops, chronology protection would require some other factor to intercede to prevent travel into the past. What might this factor be? One suggestion is that quantum processes will come to the rescue. The existence of a time machine would allow particles to loop into their own past. Calculations hint that the ensuing disturbance would become self-reinforcing, creating a runaway surge of energy that would wreck the wormhole.

Chronology protection is still just a conjecture, so time travel remains a possibility. A final resolution of the matter may have to await the successful union of quantum mechanics and gravitation, perhaps through a theory such as string theory or its extension, so-called M-theory. It is even conceivable that the next generation of particle accelerators will be able to create subatomic wormholes that survive long enough for nearby particles to execute fleeting causal loops. This would be a far cry from Wells's vision of a time machine, but it would forever change our picture of physical reality.

PAUL DAVIES is director of Beyond: Center for Fundamental Concepts in Science at Arizona State University. A theoretical physicist and cosmologist by profession, he also works in the field of astrobiology. He is one of the most prolific writers of popular-level books in physics. His scientific research interests include black holes, quantum field theory, the nature of consciousness, and the origin and evolution of life.

IMAGES

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COMMENTS

  1. How to Build a Time Machine: A Step-by-Step Guide

    Step 2: Gathering the Required Materials. Building a time machine requires certain essential materials. Make sure you have the following items: A high-powered energy source. A quantum flux capacitor. An advanced computer system. An electromagnetic field generator. A sturdy and well-insulated vessel. These materials will serve as the building ...

  2. Time Travel 101 Building Your Own Time Machine

    Welcome to "Time Travel 101: The Ultimate Guide to Building Your Own Time Machine"! In this exhilarating video, we delve deep into the fascinating world of t...

  3. How to Build a Time Machine (Vortex Distortion Space and Time Dilating

    Well lets put it this way, ive always had this thing about traveling through time, and having a time machine. So i set about making one, i decided that instead of being a vessel to travel in, i would rather have something portable. Many hours thinking i came to a conclusion. If im going to be traveling through time, the actual time machine ...

  4. How to Build a Real Working Time Machine

    This instructional video will show you how to make a time machine with household items. Follow these easy steps and you'll be time traveling in no time!Yes, ...

  5. How to Build a Time Machine: What We Know About Time Travel

    Gott says given that we propel particles nearly the speed of light on a regular basis, conceptually, it's rather simple for humans to time travel into the future. "If you want to visit Earth ...

  6. How to Build a Time Machine

    Time travel has been a popular science-fiction theme since H. G. Wells wrote his ... A formidable problem that stands in the way of making a wormhole time machine is the creation of the wormhole ...

  7. How To Build A Time Machine

    If you could time travel, where would you go to the past or to the future? Best of Earth Science: http://bit.ly/EarthLabOriginals Best of BBC Earth: http://b...

  8. How to build a time machine, from a university math professor

    This machine would enable you to travel back in time. First, you need a lot of money to buy a large cylinder. When I say large, I mean very large, perhaps 100 km long.

  9. How to Build a Time Machine

    Time travel is as much a cultural staple now as it has ever been. It's fodder for countless movies—as many people noted, "Back to the Future Part II" predicted the World Series victory of ...

  10. Making a Time Machine : 8 Steps (with Pictures)

    Step 1: The Frame - Part 1 - Basic Shape. The design principle was that this should store flat. Time machines need to be at least as big as the people they are going to bring back from the past or future. The frame is made of wooden baton and hardboard corners for strength.

  11. Making time travel a reality

    Film Synopsis. Two men pursue lifelong fantasies in very different ways, both inspired by H.G. Wells' classic novel The Time Machine. How to Build a Time Machine follows two men as they set out on a journey to build their own time machines. Rob Niosi is a stop-motion animator who has spent the last 13 years obsessively constructing a full-scale ...

  12. How to Build a Time Machine

    How to Build a Time Machine. Time Travel in Einstein's Universe: The Physical Possibilities of Travel through Time. J. Richard Gott III. Houghton Mifflin, 2001. The Quantum Physics of Time Travel ...

  13. Is Time Travel Possible?

    Can we use time travel in everyday life? We can't use a time machine to travel hundreds of years into the past or future. That kind of time travel only happens in books and movies. But the math of time travel does affect the things we use every day. For example, we use GPS satellites to help us figure out how to get to new places.

  14. A beginner's guide to time travel

    Actor Rod Taylor tests his time machine in a still from the film 'The Time Machine', directed by George Pal, 1960. (Image credit: Hulton Archive / Staff / Getty Images) Everyone can travel in time .

  15. 5 Time Machines You Can Buy, Build or Visit

    A 'magical time travel device' for $199. (Photo: Ebay) What is it? Unclear. The description online says: "This time machine is made of a special material (secret). It has to be custom made ...

  16. DIY Cardboard Time Machine

    Time travel to the past and the future with just a cardboard box and a big imagination!

  17. How to build a time machine

    How to Assemble The Time Machine.Produced and directed by Carl PiermariniThe Replica 1960 Time Machine Propby Carl Piermariniwas restored and rewired by Carl...

  18. Time Travel Equation Solved By Astrophysicist

    There's still a lot to figure out to make such travel practical, such as where the insane amount of energy such a machine would require could come from, and how big the machine would need to be.

  19. How Trump's conviction could change the dynamics of the 2024 race

    Whether a conviction changes the minds of voters who are not committed to the former president remains to be seen. A recent CBS News poll found that the majority of Americans believed Trump is ...

  20. Timed Entry Reservations

    What You Need. May 24 through September 2 timed entry reservations are required to enter the Paradise Corridor on the south side of the park from 7:00 am to 3:00 pm.; July 4 through September 2 timed entry reservations are required to enter the Sunrise Corridor on the northeast side of the park from 7:00 am to 3:00 pm.; The park is open 24/7 and visitors may enter timed entry reservation areas ...

  21. This Astrophysicist Professor Claims He Has An Equation For Time Travel

    According to Earth.com, one such book named The Time Machine written by HG Wells sparked interest about time travel in the mind of an astrophysicist professor named Ron Mallet. He embarked on a ...

  22. How to build a time machine

    Batteries and a cylinder with the mass of the sun not included. NASA/SDO, CC BY. Time. Time travel. Newtonian physics. Time machine. Albert Einstein. Register now. It is possible - with just a ...

  23. What Happens Now That Trump Has Been Convicted ...

    Trump Has Been Convicted. Here's What Happens Next. Donald J. Trump has promised to appeal, but he may face limits on his ability to travel and to vote as he campaigns for the White House. There ...

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    Here's how that affects the 2024 presidential race. NEW YORK -- Having been convicted of 34 felonies, Donald Trump cannot own a gun, hold public office or even vote in many states. But in 158 days ...

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  28. Will Trump go to prison after hush money trial verdict?

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  29. Money blog: British Airways launching 'Amazon-style' app

    British Airways to allow passengers to book flights in just a few clicks with Amazon-style app. Passengers will soon be able to book British Airways flights in a few clicks as part of a major ...

  30. How to Build a Time Machine

    Speed is one way to jump ahead in time. Gravity is another. In his general theory of relativity, Einstein predicted that gravity slows time. Clocks run a bit faster in the attic than in the ...